One year ago Hacked covered the race between the US and China to develop “military super-powers” by harnessing quantum science, and noted that Chinese scientists were developing quantum communication satellites that support unbreakable encryption. A few weeks ago, China launched its first quantum satellite.
On August 16, China launched the world’s first satellite dedicated to testing the fundamentals of quantum communication in space. Dubbed QUESS (Quantum Experiments at Space Scale), the satellite will demonstrate secure communication based on quantum entanglement over unprecedented distances. The QUESS project is led by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), with the participation of the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Unbreakable Quantum Encryption, and ‘Teleportation’
Physicists speak of quantum entanglement when two remote particles share a unique quantum state and exhibit correlated properties. For example, the spins of the two particles could always be in opposite directions. Experimental evidence confirms that entangled correlations are still observed when there is not enough time for light to travel from the first particle to the second, which means that entanglement isn’t limited by the speed of light.
The “spooky action at a distance” found in quantum entanglement has excited the imagination of physicist for decades, as a hypothetical means to achieve faster-than-light communication. Unfortunately, it appears that due to the fundamental randomness of the quantum world, it’s impossible to use using entanglement to send messages.
But the same randomness permits securely sharing keys for one-time pad (OTP) cryptography. OTP encryption is mathematically guaranteed to be unbreakable, but only if the keys are not compromised. Therefore, secure key transmission and storage is the main challenge for ultra-secure OTP cryptography.
That’s where quantum weirdness comes into play: quantum entanglement can be used to establish a shared key in such a way as to permit detecting any attempt to eavesdrop on the key. Therefore, quantum encryption offers complete, invulnerable security based on the laws of fundamental physics.
Quantum computing, a complementary quantum technology, first proposed by Nobel laureate Richard P. Feynman in 1982 (see also Feynman’s Lectures on Computation), could in the future permit cracking all traditional encryption schemes with sophisticated algorithms and superior computing power. But quantum encryption is invulnerable to quantum computing attacks.
The QUESS project will include experiments to “teleport” quantum states of photons, reconstructing them in a new location. “We will beam one photon from an entangled pair created at a ground station in Ali, Tibet, to the satellite,” said Pan. “The quantum state of a third photon in Ali can then be teleported to the particle in space, using the entangled photon in Ali as a conduit.”
Quantum teleportation in space could eventually permit to combine photons from satellites to create a huge distributed telescope with enormous resolution. “You could not just see planets,” said NASA scientist Paul Kwiat, “but in principle read licence plates on Jupiter’s moons.”
After the first QUESS pilot, China plans to launch a fleet of similar satellites to create a super-secure communications network. 20 satellites would be required to enable secure communications throughout the world.”If the first satellite goes well, China will definitely launch more,” said Chaoyang Lu, a physicist at the University of Science and Technology of China, as reported by Nature News.
In a recent article, Foreign Affairs noted that, alongside the QUESS satellite, China is developing large-scale, theoretically unbreakable quantum encryption projects, including the world’s longest quantum communications network, and plans to roll out an operational Asia-Europe quantum communications network in the next five years.
“[The QUESS] program is no mere science experiment,” noted a CAS news release in March. “China is already becoming a world leader in quantum communications technology.”
“A satellite that delivers quantum communications will be a cornerstone for translating cutting-edge research into a strategic asset for Chinese power worldwide.”
Quantum communications networks are so expensive that, according to Foreign Affairs, they could have a “recentralizing effect,” enabling states to recover the ground that they have lost to decentralizing digital technologies.
The very tangible promise and peril of the upcoming quantum technologies may arrive sooner than we think, concludes the Foreign Affairs article. Policy makers and military planners in the West should bear in mind that China is striving to achieve quantum supremacy.
Pictures from Chinese Academy of Sciences and China Daily / Reuters.
San Bernadino iPhone Case: Major Press Agencies Are Suing the FBI
The Associated Press, Gannett, and VICE Media are suing the FBI to know more details about the agency’s hack of the San Bernadino killer’s iPhone.
Toward Unbreakable Quantum Encryption for Everyone
Hacked recently covered the efforts of the Chinese government to build unbreakable quantum communication networks. According to analysts, quantum communications networks are so expensive that they could have a “recentralizing effect,” enabling states to recover the ground that they have lost to decentralizing digital technologies. But what if ultra-secure quantum cryptography could be made available to everyone at low cost?
Sony Introduces 2FA for PlayStation Users
In a long-awaited and overdue move, Sony has finally introduced two-factor authentication to PlayStation users who can now enable the security feature on their PlayStation Network (PSN) accounts.
Five years after suffering a devastating hack that compromised the user details of some 77 million PlayStation Network users, Sony has introduced two-factor authentication (2FA) on PSN accounts. Sony confirmed the news with a tweet last night, explaining how the feature works.
2-step verification feature for PlayStation Network accounts launches tonight, offers additional security: https://t.co/uubOFHGnxn
— PlayStation (@PlayStation) August 25, 2016
“By requiring two forms of identification for sign-in, your account and personal information will be better protected.” Sony wrote in its blog.
Users will be asked to provide a verification code that will be texted to their mobile phones at the time of signing into their PSN account. While the feature isn’t hack-proof (nothing is, really), it provides a much-needed extra layer of protection that a large platform like the PlayStation Network, with over 100 million uses, deserves.
Passwords can be compromised if you use the same password for multiple accounts, click on malicious links, open phishing emails and other methods.
If your password is compromised and becomes known to someone other than yourself, your account will still require a verification code to gain access when you activate 2-Step Verification.
With the feature, Sony caught up with its console rival Microsoft. The Redmond-based software giant had introduced 2FA for Xbox back in 2013, during the days of Xbox 360. Other platforms which sees millions of users such as Google, Apple, Facebook, Twitter and others have been offering 2FA security for years.
It is perhaps baffling that Sony took as long as it did to introduce 2FA security, after the 2011 breach. At the time, the hack had Sony admitting that names, email addresses, billing addresses, account passwords and some credit card numbers were all exposed. The fallout saw Sony fined by the UK government. Furthermore, Sony also agreed to a settlement in a class action lawsuit, worth millions, granting PSN users in the United States the means to claim damages if they suffered identity theft as a result of the data breach.
Featured image from Shutterstock.
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