Scalability In Ethereum
The limitations of Ethereum and other blockchains have been a subject of discussion within the developer community for a while now. Like every other blockchain, Ethereum intends to support as many users as it can. At present Ethereum can support only 13 transactions per second. To give you a perspective of things, Visa processes an average 4,000 transactions per second, while Facebook handles about 170,000 requests per second. This shows that the mainstream adoption of Ethereum is still far away.
Efforts are underway to increase the scale of Ethereum, both on The chain and off the chain. On chain scaling efforts involve making improvements in the fundamental structure of blockchain like shifting from proof of work to proof of stake, sharding, increasing gas limit, etc. The author believes that on chain efforts to improve scalability will never result in achieving the desired scale and there is an urgent need to develop off chain solutions. Raiden Network is one of Ethereum’s most highly anticipated scaling projects which proposes an off chain solution for Ethereum scalability.
The Raiden Network is an off-chain scaling solution for performing ERC20-compliant token transfers on the Ethereum blockchain. It is Ethereum’s version of Bitcoin’s Lightning Network, enabling near-instant, low-fee, scalable, and privacy-preserving payments.
Ethereum is impractical for instant payment solutions due to the minimum 15 second average block time present on the network. When a transaction is being conduction on the blockchain, it has to be confirmed by a global network (i.e every participant on the network has to agree to it). Raiden proposes an off the chain solution where every transaction does not need to be agreed globally as long as the participating parties agree to it. The transaction is broadcasted on the blockchain only during the final settlement.
Raiden is developing state channel technology which is built on top of Ethereum. Suppose A and B want to transact with each other. They will open an off chain payment channel between them and deploy a smart contract on Ethereum, which conveys the same to the blockchain. Both parties make a security deposit in the smart contract. Suppose A wants to send 3 tokens to B. A signs the message “3” and sends it to B. B now has the proof of receiving 3 tokens from A. In another transaction A sends 4 tokens to B in a message signed “7”. Note that a message “7” is sent in this transaction since only the current state of the channel is saved, which means that the message will convey information about the previous 3 token transaction as well as the current one. Once B wants to spend the tokens received from A, he will go on chain and ask to settle the transaction and close the payment channel. B will receive his 7 tokens from the deposit and only the final settlement amount which is 7 is relayed on the blockchain.
The payment channels between users are one-to-one. However, all transacting parties need not have a direct one-to-one channel with each other. Channels can be linked together to form a network, so users can pay anyone within the network.
The end users do not have to manually look for participants to open a channel with or a path to route the transfer through. The participants will only need to open a software client and tell it the amount of tokens they want to deposit – the amount of tokens they are willing to use on the network.
The protocol currently supports only ERC-20 compatible tokens.
Token And Crowdraise
The token is not a necessity at the core protocol level. Opening or closing payment channels, joining the network and sending transfers do not involve RDN at the protocol level. However, the tokens can be used to improve and increase the user experience. For example there will be auxiliary helper service providers on the network who would assist with finding a path with sufficient capacity or services that provide channel monitoring services for offline users. Most users will be happy to provide some network fees in the form of RDN to third party services and not running the full stack of services themselves.
The ICO of Raiden has created some controversy in the cryptocurrency community. There are many critics of the move including Vitalik Buterin who has questioned the need for an Ethereum protocol to have its own ICO.
The crowdsale will begin on 18 October. A Dutch auction will be conducted for the crowdraise to reduce the hype and speculation. The total supply of the tokens will be 100 million RDN with 50% to be distributed amongst the ICO participants.
Raiden is being developed by Brainbot Technologies. Along with Riaden, Brainbot is working on a few other projects like Hydrachain, Trustless Network and also Ethereum core development. There are many developers working on the project.
Heiko Hees is the founder & CEO. He has been the core developer of Ethereum since March 2014. In an interview with Huffington Post Heiko Hees was quoted:
Basically all blockchain based applications that want to scale to real world usage will benefit from Raiden. It can be used for applications like asset trading in gaming or finance, retail payments, micropayments for content (think the next YouTube or Spotify where creators are directly paid for every second consumed). But it’s also suitable as an infrastructure for cheaper, faster and more secure correspondent banking.
Raiden has been one of the most highly anticipated value addition to the Ethereum Network. Despite the launch being delayed since March 2017, there is a lot of excitement about the project and its implications on the Ethereum Network. Many Ethereum users will be willing to pay a small fees to access the Raiden Network. It is one of the few blockchain based project which will have hundreds of thousands of users as soon as it is launched.
We feel the controversy surrounding this ICO is unnecessary. A properly funded and incentivised organisation is better positioned to deliver and drive adoption, than a development team living off donations. The project will definitely scale and gain value, it all boils down to whether you think Ethereum will stay relevant going ahead in the future.
- The project was supposed to be launched in March 2017. The launch date for Raiden has not been released yet. -2
- The tokens will be used as an internal medium of exchange. This model does not seem feasible in a project like Raiden where the tokens are an option and not a necessity. A better model would have been using the proceeds from the network fees to burn the tokens. We reduce some points over the economic viability of the RDN tokens. -2
- Ethereum Network itself might solve the issue of scalability and provide the solution for free. -1
- Scalability is the biggest issue that Ethereum faces at the moment. Right now Ethereum can support only basic smart contract based applications. Once scalability is achieved Ethereum can support many other use cases, which will help expand the blockchain. As Ethereum grows, so does Raiden. +6
- Raiden will have users on the network as soon as it is launched. +3
- Raiden Network promises a throughput of a million transactions per second which is more than enough for any existing traditional application. +3
We arrive at a score of +7 for Raiden. The score seems justified for a project which will lead to a faster mainstream adoption of Ethereum blockchain.
The ICO begins on October 18, 2017 around 3 p.m. UTC. The ICO will follow the Dutch auction process. Since the token usage is not a necessity to access the network, the token value should be low. It is advisable to wait for the price to come down before buying. Please refer to this blog post to get more details.
ICO Analysis: Lydian
The market for initial coin offerings (ICOs) is exploding, as early-stage startups turn to crowdfunding for capital raises. But there’s a serious problem in this largely unregulated market: how can investors tell the difference between legitimate companies and dubious copycats?
The SAFT protocol, which the author firmly supports, is one way in which the cryptocurrency community is vetting both coin sales and investors. Its proponents argue that SAFTs can create and sustain a self-regulated cryptocurrency market, something that is sorely needed.
Of course, regulators know nothing about SAFT, and are instead pursuing hard bans on ICOs. China and South Korea are the most prominent examples. As it turns out, some of the marketing and capital raise tactics used by ICOs can be downright abusive.
To its credit, Lydian has quickly caught on to the problems plaguing this nascent industry. Its gripe isn’t just with fraudsters, but anyone looking to bullshit their way to an ICO using the unsavory practices of rent-charging, abusing marketing and half-assed campaigns. This isn’t entirely due to neglect.
Lydian’s market research finds that the average ICO spends between $100,000 and $500,000 on digital marketing. Unfortunately, their delivery method is archaic and poorly executed. To make matters even more complicated, companies must continue to advertise aggressively long after the token sale has ended. After all, the end of a token sale is when the work really begins.
The LydianCoin attempts to solve the problems plaguing token raises by offering AI-powered digital marketing services. The coin itself doesn’t have any magical powers; it simply represents a way to pre-pay for the services of Lydian’s parent company, Gravity4. Of course, its services aren’t limited to ICO issuers, but any company in need of marketing analytics.
Gravity4 markets itself as “The World’s First AI Big Data Marketing Cloud.” It currently boasts Fortune 1000 companies and makes use of advanced technology to deliver personalized marketing solutions.
So, why are they launching the blockchain-based LydianCoin? Probably as a way to reduce costs, raise hype and continue to scale up its niche marketing prowess. The company appears to be on to something with its MonaLisa platform, which is itself built on a blockahin. Through MonaLisa, Gravity4 is looking to combat fraud in the advertising industry.
Fraudulent marketing practices are actually a huge deal. Even Facebook has admitted to inflating its ad metrics. (In fact, they came under scrutiny again in September.)
The LydianCoin Token
Lydian (LDN) is an ERC20-based Ethereum token that will form the basis of the company’s forthcoming ICO launch. The token sale will accept bitcoin and ether payments for its capital raise. Early indications are that the LDN token will be valued at $5 USD.
LDN is described as a “value-stabilized cryptocurrency,” which can be negotiated back to Lydian to obtain marketing services that leverage years of aggregated marketing data. This includes marketing placement and customer interaction metrics and disintermediate advertising channels. The end-user is promised superior marketing metrics at a lower net cost. The tokens may be used immediately upon issuance.
The total value of the proposed raise is expected to be $100 million. The company will use the proceeds as reserves against the provision of future digital advertising and marketing services.
Lydian’s pre-sale is currently active, and has raised $10 million in 72 hours. Until Nov. 20, investors will receive a 25% bonus on their investment. The official issuance date is Nov. 20.
For two hours after the issuance date, the token will be available for a 15% discount that drops to 10% over the next 22 hours. From the day after the issuance date through Nov. 27, no bonus will be available.
The minimum purchase amount is 4,001 LDN tokens.
Lydian’s crowdsale is headed by the executive team at Gravity4. As we mentioned previously, Gravity4 has already delved into the world of blockchain with its MonaLisa platform.
The founder of the company is Gurbaksh Chahal, an entrepreneur with 17 years of experience in digital advertising. He has his fingerprints on numerous successful internet advertising companies, including ClickAgent and BlueLithium, which sold for a combined $340 million in separate deals.
However, the news surrounding Chahal isn’t all positive. In 2014, the executive pleaded guilty to abusing his then-girlfriend. Now, he faces possible jail time for violating probation in another case of violence against women. He is also being sued by four previous employees for harassment and discrimination – claims Chahal says are “baseless” and “frivolous.” (All according to Forbes.)
The company’s Managing Director Grant Allaway and Kevin Huang have a combined 32 years of experience.
Gravity4 has also retained Mazars Ireland as its auditors and added legal advisers Dentons U.S. LLP and Berger Singerman LLP.
Solid team, if you look past the possible legal issues facing the founder.
Lydian is backed by a solid digital marketing company. Its tokens serve a viable business function for customers and vendors in pursuit of customized marketing solutions. For actual investors, the benefits are less compelling. (After all, the token is a reserve against future digital advertising and marketing services.)
That being said, the company faces several legal challenges that extend far beyond the key executive’s past behavior. These need to be weighed carefully to determine whether the $100 million valuation is justified.
The company is also endorsed by Paris Hilton, so take that for what it’s worth.
- The head of Gravity4, Gurbaksh Chahal, has pleaded guilty to domestic violence and faces possible jail time for violating probation. If you’re a holder of LDN, this doesn’t exactly stoke feelings of confidence in the executive team or its direction. Let’s also not fail to mention that the company has four outstanding lawsuits.
- The main purpose of the Lydian token sale is to pay for Gravity4’s services in dollars. So, really, what exactly is the point of the token? There are other ways to obtain upfront or advanced payments for your services. Why go through all the trouble of minting a cryptocurrency?
- The only real value proposition for giving Gravity4 your money is the promise of “exclusive access” to features it is developing in the future. What are those features, exactly?
- Industry experts, once again cited by Forbes, suggest that LydianCoin meets the SEC’s definition of a security. In deeming DAO to be a security, the SEC used what is known as the Howey test. Lydian seems to meet the criteria set out in that test, which could put it in regulatory hot water.
- For all the hype surrounding the ICO, the company makes very little effort to engage the community. There’s a couple thousand followers on Twitter, but no direct engagement model on other channels. Also, there’s no team page on the main site.
- Lydian’s parent company has a proven track record in blockchain. This is somewhat of a rarity for ICOs, at least the ones the author has reviewed.
- Gravity4 has serious growth potential, especially in terms of scalability. The business model allows the company to grow without risking too much overhead or intermediary costs. The application of AI and big data to marketing has many people excited.
- The token sale raised $10 million in 72 hours, so clearly people are lining up to participate.
As you’ve probably noticed, the author has omitted an individual score on each of the risks and growth drivers. That’s because he believes the risks far outweigh the rewards, but doesn’t feel justified giving a “negative rating.” That’s because Gravity4 seems to have a good business model and something real to offer the advertising community. How does this translate into an ICO raise? Well, it doesn’t.
Although the ICO has sucked in eight-figures in less than three days, that itself doesn’t justify buying it. There are too many red flags involving Chahal and the regulatory circumstances surrounding the “utility token.” The author doesn’t see any long-term benefits to the crowdraise, unless it’s to bank on the cryptocurrency craze.
Against this backdrop, we’ve assigned Lydian a rating of 2.5 out of 10. The token might succeed from a crowdraise perspective, but that doesn’t mean you should buy.
- Type: Crowdsale
- Pre-Sale: Ongoing
- Opening Sale: Nov. 27, 2017
- End Date; Dec. 4, 2017
- Platform: Ethereum (ETH)
- Total Supply: 40 million (20 million to be sold via token sale)
- Total Supply Available for Advertisers: ~800,000
- Token Price: $5.00 USD (with discounts available)
- Fundraising Goal: $100 million USD
- Payments Accepted: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Dash, ZCash, ZEC, Waves
Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.
ICO Analysis: Datum
Did you know the word Datum is singular for data? I didn’t!
As the name suggests Datum’s business model revolves around data.
The Datum network allows anyone to store structured data securely in a decentralized way on a smart contract blockchain. The DAT smart token enables optional selling and buying of stored data while enforcing data usage rules as set by the data owner.
Nowadays data is an asset which is as valuable as oil and machines used to be in the past. It has become a strategic asset that allows companies to acquire or maintain a competitive edge. User data can find many applications and uses, most important being advertising and research.
“If you are not paying for the product, you are the product.” – Andrew Lewis, 2010.
Internet conglomerates like Facebook, Google, Twitter provide their services for free but in exchange exploit a user’s personal data. Sensitive information like personal emails are accessed by Google to sell information to advertisers. The data ecosystem is now worth billions of dollars, however the most important component of this system i.e the user, is the only one who is not actively involved. Datum is creating a decentralized network where users will have all the control over their data and will get paid for sharing it.
Datum network is based on smart contracts which enable the sharing and exchange of data. Datum client will be a web and mobile based application where user submits the data along with its usage terms. The data gets encrypted and stored in decentralized form using IPFS and BigChainDB. Users will have to pay some fee to the network storage miners. Once buyers submit their requirements, smart contracts match the attributes and release data in exchange of access charges taken from the buyer.
Apple’s Healthkit is similar to what Datum aims to offer. However the data stored on Healthkit is centrally located and owned by Apple, and the users don’t get paid for sharing their data. The team has not given many usecases of the product usage in their short whitepaper apart from a few examples of data monopoly of internet giants like Facebook and Google. Newly launched AirToken also pays users for enabling access to data. The concept of Datum is somewhat different, you can check our review of AirToken here. Companies like Papyrus,Qchain are creating digital advertising ecosystems in which users get paid for sharing their data to advertisers. They are limited to advertising ecosystem, while Datum aims to cover other domains as well, although we don’t exactly know which ones.
Token and Crowdraise
DAT is the only token to be used on the platform. DAT will be used in various stages of the product offering. Users will have to pay DATs to access the network and store data. Data buyers will pay DATs to register on the network and access user data. Third party services of CIVIC, IPFS, BigChainDB will be used in the network.
The ICO will begin on 29th October. The total supply of DAT will be 3 billion of which 1.53 Billion will be available for the ICO. There is a softcap of $5 million and a hardcap of $45 million. One DAT is valued at around $0.03. 20% of the total supply of 3 billion is kept for the team. 60% of the funds raised will be used for development and 15% for marketing.
CEO Roger Haenni is a serial entrepreneur with extensive experience in big data systems. He has cofounded 4 companies one of which includes StockX. StockX is a venture capital backed e-commerce site for global sneaker resale market. The whitepaper lists 8 members in the team and 1 adviser. Adviser Daniel Saito is the cofounder of MySQL. A recent blogpost shows addition of 3 new advisers and a few more team members. The core team has no prior blockchain experience, they have hired 2 Stanford undergrads as blockchain engineers. We give an average rating to the team. The team’s lack of blockchain experience should have been compensated by having more advisers who have worked with the technology.
Even after a user downloads Datum, what is stopping Facebook, Google, Amazon from sharing user’s data. That’s how the internet economy works. Facebook, Google are providing free services to users only because they get the data. The “only users have access to their data” part of the advertising campaign is somewhat misleading. IF very strict antitrust laws come up which prevent internet giants from collecting user info without their permission, then the business model might find value. Atleast for the decentralized digital advertising bit, companies like Papyrus, Airtoken seem to be much better placed. As for the other usecases, there is not much information available. There is a mention of car data, where users will sell data that their car generates using Datum. But then how are they planning to do that? Are they actively seeking partnerships with car manufactures like Dovu does? Overall we feel the idea is good, but the scope is too broad for a single team to handle. We hope the team shares some more details through blog posts etc.
- The scope of the project is too big for small team to handle. Many projects are working on the issue of data ownership, but they are focused on niche segments. -3
- The whitepaper leaves you with many questions in mind. -2
- For a project of this scale a large adviser network is needed. The whitepaper mentions only one adviser. A blog post informing about addition of 3 new advisers was posted on 14th October. Did they add 3 new advisers just two weeks before an ICO where they want to raise $45 million? -0.5
- The concept of data ownership holds a lot of potential. +2
- Datum can definitely scale in usecases like medicine, where something similar to HealthKit can be created. +4
- Tokens used in transactions will be burnt, creating value for token holders as the network scales. +2
We arrive at a score of 2.5 out of 10 for Datum. The score seems valid considering the many underlying grey areas.
The ICO begins on 29th October. You can register for the whitelist here.
ICO Analysis: Worldcore
From the perspective of ICOs, Worldcore stands apart for the fact that it is already known as a successful payment solution. Established in 2014, the Czech-based company offers an online transfer service that specializes in bank wires, prepaid withdrawal cards, instant credit card payments and free money transfers.
The company only recently announced plans to create a peer-to-peer lending platform hosted over the blockchain. While some may say Worldcore is being opportunistic, it boasts a client base of more than 25,000 people across the globe. In 2017, it has already cleared $100 million in transaction volume.
As a regulated payment solution with an EU license to operate in the Czech Republic, Worldcore has had great success in its first few years. It has an established track record, a decent business model and aspirations of global expansion. It also picked the right time to enter crypto.
But that doesn’t mean Worldcore doesn’t have limitations. As we’ll discuss in the following sections, the company’s lofty valuation is more than just a pat on the back for the good work it has done in recent years.
If that isn’t enough, we invite anyone to visit the company’s site (or is it, this one?) and try to make sense exactly what it is that Worldcore offers. The author isn’t proud to admit he had to visit several third-party websites just to figure out that the company is an online transfer service. You might be thinking, bad copywriters? Maybe. But what if we told you Worldcore is also planning to launch a 24/7 TV service? From the scant details we were able to obtain from the whitepaper, WorldcoreTV will be launched if and when the company raises $25 million. On that note, the whitepaper is a 73-page poster that doesn’t offer much to the tech-savvy investor.
Worldcore launched its WRC token Oct. 14 on the Ethereum blockchain. One WRC is valued at $0.10 USD, with a total market cap of $100 million USD. A total of 1 billion tokens will be circulated during the ICO. Investors can participate in the raise using fiat currencies like the euro and U.S. dollar, as well as cryptocurrencies.
Worldcore’s motivation for the crowdraise is to leverage the blockchain in pursuit of bigger business. The company isn’t just dabbing its foot in the ledger technology, but actually converting its business operation to enable greater blockchain capability.
In its whitepaper, the company emphasizes the following target audience for its services:
- Big companies
- Online shops and retailers
- Online marketplaces
- Common people
- All kinds of small business
With a list like that, it’s clear Worldcore is thinking very big. The company’s global reach is demonstrated by the fact that it has translated its website into more than ten languages.
Anyone who wants to send money overseas, facilitate business-to-business transactions and utilize unique security enhancements like voice recognition is Worldcore’s target market.
The company has an aggressive roadmap that begins by obtaining membership of the major credit cards, SWIFT and SEPA networks by Q1 2018. With $10 million in funding, it plans to open “5 fully-packed offices in 5 more EU countries” by Q1 2019. If it reaches $25 million in funding, it will launch its WorldcoreTV service, “the world’s first 24/7 hybrid of TV channel and digital media focused on Fintech & BlockChain industries with online and international 24/7 broadcasting through Satellite and IPTV.”
At $50 million raised, the company plans to transform into a Swiss bank. It believes it can do this by mid-2019.
WRC tokens are essentially a stake in the newly developed blockchain-focused company. In other words, think of your WRC tokens as stocks. There doesn’t seem to be any direct use of the tokens within the company’s network, except to reap profits from Worldcore’s business growth. Worldcore is offering 30% profit to its investors.
If “slow money” isn’t your style, you can trade the WRC token on the digital currency exchange. This option will be available to token holders immediately. The company says it will provide a full list of exchanges where WRC is accepted at the end of the ICO.
In terms of personnel, there’s quite a bit of clout behind the Worldcore executive. Founder and CEO Alex Nasonov was listed in the Financial Times annual ranking of New Europe 100 changemakers in Central and Eastern Europe. The company also has a solid list of general partners that includes Bitpay.
Against this backdrop, the author has little doubt that Worldcore is home to a solid team. However, very little information is provided about them, their credentials or the advisers they’ve selected.
Based on the whitepaper, Worldcore is home to at least three developers, 20-plus support and development staff and a core team of managers. The company also consults with advisers, but does not name them.
The team operates in accordance with EU law, so there’s little to be concerned about from the perspective of legitimacy, regulation and business ethics.
Worldcore is a highly ambitious company with a proven track record in its niche market. But as an outsider, understanding the company’s service offerings and assigning it a valuation has proven difficult. We feel that the strategy behind the capital raise veers away from the company’s core service offering. As an outsider, the roadmap for growth seems a little far fetched (as a reminder, Worldcore says it can become a full-fledged Swiss bank in less than two years).
- At $100 million USD, Worldcore is significantly overvalued. Although the company doesn’t state its revenues, the price tag is too high for what it currently offers. Of course, this hard cap is based on potential, but the author isn’t too excited about WorldcoreTV. -5
- The roadmap for growth makes very little sense. Capital raise via ICO makes even less sense from the information we gathered from the whitepaper and the website. -3
- Although the development team has been involved in blockchain since 2016, there’s no mention of blockchain or cryptocurrency expertise or experience. The team has done a good job offering an online payment service, but what exactly does this mean from the perspective of blockchain? By the looks of it, Worldcore is taking a deep dive into this technology. Can we really be sure it’s going about it the right way? -3
- Competition looms large for any blockchain-based payment service. This will work against Worldcore, which, again, has very little experience. -3
- Worldcore is scaling up its core services quickly, and the company expects to clear $150 million in transaction volume this year. +4
- The company’s CEO has established a good track record that has not gone unrecognized. +1
Based on the above, we assign the Worldcore ICO a rating of 1 out of 10. The holes in the business plan are simply too glaring to even consider funding a project of this nature. We certainly don’t take anything away from the company’s growth, but the project idea does not compute.
Hacked.com members have a high propensity for spotting shoddy whitepapers. The Worldcore write-up is one of the weakest seen. Once again, we invite our members to give it a read and share if they have any unique or differing perspectives.
For more information about the Worldcore token raise, visit the main website.
- Project Type: Crowdsale
- Opening Date: Oct. 14, 2017
- End Date; Nov. 14, 2017
- Platform: Ethereum (ETH)
- Total Supply: 1 billion tokens
- Token Price: $0.10 USD (all unsold tokens will be burned upon the ICO’s closure)
Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.
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