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ICO Analysis: Enjin Coin



We like when entrenched or existing players in industries see the power of the blockchain and identify their own opportunities within it. This is what we see with Enjin, who launched their online gaming-centric content management system in the same year that Bitcoin was getting off the ground. Enjin therefore gets the benefits of extolling its own virtues before pitching a new idea: millions in monthly revenue across over a quarter-million gaming communities around the globe.

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While we have to avoid the fallacious idea that just because an idea worked in fiat sytems it will work even better on a blockchain, it is encouraging to know that the people approaching the project in question are deeply familiar with the subject matter. We lent Rex[] additional points on these grounds, being that their progenitors are established property development professionals and Rex is meant to serve that demographic. In the case of Enjin, they really took some time to find the right tool set for their task: they’re building a Bancor Protocol token, not just any ERC20 token.

The idea of Enjin’s ENJ token is not necessarily a new one. Brock Pierce originally made his real money from a firm that allowed people to sell virtual goods acquired through gaming. What Enjin would like to build is a system wherein players will be able to seamlessly do this, enabling content creators and players to have a much better experience when it comes to the dollars and dimes of gaming. Everyone agrees that game developers and studios should be paid, even subscriptions in the cases where ongoing content and services are in order. What is debatable is whether it should be a zero sum system when it comes to the digital goods and services offered inside of such a platform. It would seem that cryptocurrencies, native to the same way in the same way that massively multiplayer games themselves are, will fit right in to service the need of a solution.

Enjin will develop tools that enable game publishers, game servers, and communities to manage virtual goods and in-game items across multiple platforms. Monetization using Enjin Coin will be a key focus with robust features and toolsets provided. Great benefits will be gained by utilizing a decentralized platform and the supporting frameworks.

Building on Bancor

Enjin says on the token ICO page that they will be using Bancor to issue the tokens, but they don’t mention much in their whitepaper about their thinking here, or how this makes things better. In any case, Bancor is an established way of issuing tokens. It’s one of the purposes of the Bancor protocol, and one of its use-cases.

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Nevertheless, having just enough technical grasp of what is going on with Bancor and Enjin, we can deduce that Enjin is using Bancor for its enhanced smart token capabilities. Bancor explains smart tokens, in part, in the following way:

Smart tokens are compatible with the ERC20 standard and can be used by any softwarethat supports this standard, such as Ethereum wallets. However, smart tokens offer additional functionality not available to regular tokens. Each smart token holds a reservebalance in one or more other ERC20 tokens, thereby enabling anyone to exchangebetween itself and any of its reserve token(s). The smart token’s smart contract issuesnew tokens (expanding the supply) to anyone who purchases it with any of its reservetokens, and withdraws tokens from the reserves (contracting supply) for anyone choosingto liquidate the smart token.

Presumably, ENJ, along with BNT and ETH, will act as base currencies for tokens issued within the Enjin platform.

But Who Needs It?

Enjin are good at identifying their market above all others. This harkens back to our earlier assertion that the best blockchain technologies will derive from those who are already familiar with the industries they intend to disrupt. In Enjin’s case, they’ve been able to install themselves as a medium between game publishers and their communities. In many ways, their company, at over 8 years old, has already outlived many of the games people probably first encountered them through.

Their goal is to produce a platform on which developers, community members, and players will be able to freely transact in digital goods and services related to interests they are already engaged in. Their first target market, although obviously they can expand to new games easier through native integrations, is an existing, global community of players already willing to spend money in a similar fashion.

They are entirely serious about this last aspect, with several developer tools built into their roadmap, one of which being a plugin for Unity, which is a popular engine on which modern video games are built.

The Unity C# SDK will allow creation of transaction requests, reading account balances, creation of subscriptions, and querying toplists.

There are a few other developer tools they speak of implementing right away. Making it easy for developers is a primarily important thing in the early phases. However, Enjin will already see some adoption regardless of this because it will be leveraging existing communities and relationships built over many years.

So far, so good. Where the rubber meets the road is in both the economic purposes and design and design of the ENJ token. We must now get to the heart of that.

Enjin Token (ENJ)

The Enjin platform itself can be seen as a sub-Ethereum, although it is technically sub-Bancor, protocol. Within it, an unlimited number of other tokens can be generated by the individual participant games and communities. These tokens can be used in a variety of ways. One important thing that we must determine before deciding on ENJ is whether or not they ever intend to go full ENJ. Meaning, will they always accept alternative payment methods for developers getting into the network? If so, there would also be a dilution of funds by virtue of arbitrage as well as attrition.

The answer to this question is made in part in the following statement:

Enjin Coin features will be integrated across the entire Enjin CMS platform and natively supported by over 250,000 existing gaming websites.

They go on to stress that it will be much cheaper for developers to accept payments through Enjin Coin and while this may be rue, it is not the confidence builder we’re looking for. We need systems that force the issue, or else the tokens are only a maybe sort of proposition. The systems that will yield more valuable tokens for token investors are those which build demand by having utility. Enjin’s token platform, and the many tokens that can be issued upon it, have such utility, but they are not going to allow themselves room to grow their network effect. A simple fix to this is forcing other payment rails off the site, and only competing with new platforms that want to integrate Enjin Coin in addition. This would create a more valuable token for competitive purposes, anyway.

Nevertheless, they do list out a number of interesting and valid use cases for the Enjin Coin:

  • Promotion on Enjin platform, perhaps within games there.
  • Payment gateway with almost no cost for usage.
  • Donation and reward setups for players and customers.
  • Automated payments.

We have confidence that the Enjin team are far more than capable of completing their technical goals. To this end, they have developed a UI concept which they share in their whitepaper:


In total, the sale will allow for the creation of 1 billion ENJ tokens. Since this is not a mineable currency, this appears to be all the tokens that will be created. The presale has been ongoing, and during this time a total $4,143,821.96 had already been raised at time of writing. Adding confusion to the issue, their bonus structure works opposite to the normal way, such that:

$2,000,000 USD and over receives a 50% bonus.

We won’t let this distract too much from the core values of the coin, which outweigh the one setback. Additionally, only 20% of the coins are being held back, whereas in many recent ICOs we have seen ratios as high as 50%, which can be problematic in determining an actual price on something.

The Verdict

The crucial part of a tokenized system is missing, but this doesn’t mean it can’t be repaired level. The author’s gripe with the system is simple enough: Enjin Coin will only be an additional payment option in the Enjin platform. But it will be a competitive one, and the decision to force the issue is at the discretion of a company which might benefit from that handsomely.


  • Without sufficient motivation, which is to say lack of choice in order to participate in the Enjin platform or any of its games, people will still often choose other payment rails even where Enjin would actually work out better for everyone involved. -3
  • Push-back from companies like Steam could add up to a mighty, unforeseen force of competition. -1

Growth Potential

  • We like building this on Bancor, which is steadily gaining momentum in terms of value, as people begin begin to realize its potential and things are built on its protocol. Like Ethereum or anything else, Bancor’s value relies on the tokens beneath it, which in turn will benefit from the stability provided therein. A similar effect is had on Enjin by its own design, and since it comes on board with a quarter-million compatible platforms, we see dollar signs. +3
  • The variety of developer toolkits will likely add up to actual integration, especially if some of the reserved tokens are used to incentivize user demand through bounty campaigns. Such campaigns could focus on getting developers to build on Enjin. We can foresee a company like Enjin being wise enough to do as much. +2.5
  • The cost of platforms continues to goes down, the adoption of games continues to rise. Enjin will be positioned to profit from the nexus of the rise of both gaming and the blockchain. +2
  • As exhaustively noted heretofore, this company knows what it is doing. That it already has a community to leverage money from, which already willingly pays it money through other means, means that it will be able to extract more value via the blockchain, and provide more value as well, since there will be fewer fees yet more possibilities. +2


We arrive at a solid 5.5 for this initial coin offering, with room to go either way depending on developments of the actual rollout. This won’t take long to see, since the company backing it will certainly deliver something.

Investment Details

The presale is ongoing. The total coins generated will be 1 billion. Please follow all instructions carefully when reviewing this ICO and do your own additional research before sending money anywhere.

Further investment details are available at

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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  1. kyenneti

    September 2, 2017 at 2:09 am

    P. H. Madore, How do the ratings work? Does a 5.5 means a buy or not a buy? Is there a range for strong buy/Buy/Buy with caution/Not a Buy? Are you buying these tokens?

  2. claudio_101

    September 2, 2017 at 11:58 am

    Do you have any idea if the ENJIN coin is going to be traded on exchanges? Because I can imagine that not only gamers would want to invest in this ICO. Well what I’m asking is how are non gamers going to profit from this ICO?

  3. cryptonoob

    September 6, 2017 at 6:49 pm

    This one looks like a really great idea with a realistic but ambitious roadmap and a team that looks up to the challenge.

    So, what are we missing ? Why does the presale does not sell completely out yet ?

    Is it because there is no first mover advantage (first blood) or no real marketing effort yet ?

  4. jagrmeister

    September 12, 2017 at 9:18 am

    One thing I’m not clear on: is the team putting this together part of Enjin. Are they on Enjin’s payroll and this is an internal operation of the company? They have titles like Founder/CEO but do they also hold a separate title with Enjin (such as Director, Sr. Software Developer), etc. I’m trying to understand how autonomous this team is; and also how tight their relationship with Enjin is. One concern I have is alignment. Small startup teams work their tail off because everything depends on it. Enjin Coin could disappear and no one use it; and the company would be doing just fine w/its current source of revenue. The people involved, if they work for Enjin, could drift off to other parts of that company. Ultimately startups bust their tail off in ways that drive the coin price up; but employees at Enjin (if that’s what this team is) won’t necessarily have the same mentality. (If this is an internal project, and they’re on salary with Enjin, the coin allocation to the team for this project doesn’t seem sensible. Not a deal-breaker but not the same thing as working without comp. for a year or two to build a crypto asset).

  5. jagrmeister

    September 12, 2017 at 9:23 am

    I got a response from Enjin here to my comment/question above. “The Enjin Coin project is getting full time allocation from the founding team. We already have staff in place to handle the Enjin Business. Enjin is a mature service with minimal maintenance required. Of course we’ll continue to release new features, such as Enjin Coin Integrations and other updates to the network. The Enjin business will be hiring more staff to accommodate any possible shortcomings since the founding team are now fully dedicated on the Enjin Coin project roadmap.”

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ICO Analysis: Medicalchain



Medicalchain is aiming to disrupt data management in the healthcare industry using decentralization and the blockchain technology.

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Despite the world being in the midst of a data revolution, medical data is yet to catch up with other industries. From centralization, to slow speeds and vulnerable networks, healthcare systems have not evolved along with other industries.

Medicalchain is solving four significant issues with the current state of healthcare data storage.

  • Interoperability: Health data contained in legacy systems is fragmented because of varying systems and formats. There is no single version of truth which can be used and accessed by all the stakeholders.
  • Security and Fraud: Sensitive information about patients is stored in centralized legacy servers. WannaCry attack crippled the NHS with an attack on more than 230K computer systems. Medical data is sold on the dark web for almost 10x the price of credit card info.
  • Data storage: Medical data is usually controlled by a single entity which results in high dependency on that system. NHS recently lost the medical records of around 700K patients putting their health at risk.
  • Privacy control: Patients have no control over who uses and accesses their medical information.

Medicalchain’s decentralized platform enables secure, fast and transparent exchange and usage of medical data using the blockchain technology. The platform is built using a dual blockchain structure. The first blockchain controls access to health records and is built using Hyperledger Fabric. The second blockchain is powered by an ERC20 token on Ethereum and underlies all the applications and services for the platform.

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Hyperledger fabric allows access control and multiple layers of permissions which is ideal for the privacy control use case. Only the patients can access their medical data while blockchain makes it immutable to hacks and breaches.

Medicalchain is not just a platform to store and access medical data but provides an infrastructure for digital health application and services to be built on top of the healthcare database. The company is currently developing two applications to work alongside the platform: a doctor-to-patient telemedicine application and a health data marketplace. Going ahead, Medicalchain aims to serve as an ecosystem for decentralized healthcare applications. A closed beta platform will be launched in February of this year.


The ERC20 MedToken will be used to access and pay for applications built on top of the Medicalchain data. When conducting telemedicine consultations (using the Telemedicine application), patients will pay the doctors using MedTokens.

Pharmaceutical organizations will pay the patients in the form of MedTokens if the patients provide them access to his medical history using the marketplace application.
Users will use MedTokens for a variety of other applications and services that will be developed on Medicalchain’s platform.


Co-founder Dr. Abdullah Albeyatti created an application called Discharge Summary in 2016 to generate accurate medical reports on patients, before they are discharged. He created these frameworks to create standardization in medical reports. Discharge Summary is being used in 3 hospitals in the UK. Discharge Summary is a very small component of Medicalchain, and contrary to many claims, it would be inappropriate to suggest that Medicalchain is being tested in 3 hospitals.

The other Co-founder Mo Tayeb is a tech entrepreneur and has previously founded technology, finance, and e-commerce companies.

There are 13 members in the team with extensive experience in healthcare and tech.

Medicalchain has eight advisors which include healthcare professionals and blockchain specialists.


Medical error is the third leading cause of death in the United States; add to it the woes faced by NHS in 2017, we can conclude that Medicalchain is working on a real problem which needs immediate solutions. The team looks solid with a mix of both healthcare and technology.
Medicalchain also scores well on the hype factor, with more than 10K members on the Telegram group a couple of weeks before the ICO.
But as with any industry with solid blockchain use case, there are many current and upcoming projects competing with Medicalchain.

Medicalchain vs. competition?
The most well-known project in this space is Patientory. Patientory differs from Medicalchain in 2 major aspects. Patientory is primarily focused in the US, while Medicalchain has global ambitions. After initial testing in the US and the UK, Medicalchain will expand in other geographies in this year itself. Another major differentiator is that Medicalchain follows a bottom-up approach, where they plan to integrate patients and doctors onto the platform and then make the platform functional using the Telemedicine application. Patientory follows a top-down approach and is trying to partner with establishments, hospitals, healthcare organizations. We have a favorable view of the bottom-up approach, as it makes the project less dependent on partnerships and can be readily operational.

Medibloc is another platform operating in the same sector. Medibloc is based on Qtum while Medicalchain’s data layer is based on hyperledger fabric, which we feel is more suitable for this use case. We also think Medicalchain’s team more capable than either of these projects.

Overall Medicalchain is a good project on the conceptual level, but some concerns start to emerge once you think about executing it on scale. We will discuss some of these concerns in the Risks section.


  • The team will have to interact with multiple entities including the doctors, patients, pharmacies, insurers.
    Bringing all these entities on board and convincing them about the potential benefits won’t be an easy task. -2
  • Interacting with the regulatory authorities of each region will have its own difficulties. Each geography has its specific laws and regulations when it comes to medical data. E.g., in the US, the patients do not necessarily own their medical data, the hospitals and the clinicians have the right over it. The UK has a central healthcare database, but Medicalchain will need to extract data from the UK’s central servers which are based on subpar technology. -3
  • Medicalchain is expected to face significant competition in the future. Tech giants like IBM are actively exploring blockchain solutions for the healthcare industry. IBM recently collaborated with major insurers in India for blockchain solutions. -1

Growth Potential

  • The project fares better regarding the team, roadmap, and vision against the existing competition. Co-founder Dr. Abdullah Albeyatti has been working in this direction since 2016. +5
  • There is a significant growth potential for blockchain solutions in the healthcare industry, especially in the Healthcare data segment. Considering the issues that NHS had to face in the past year, UK seems like ideal geography to begin operations. +4
  • Medicalchain is also creating an application layer to build medical applications. The Telemedicine application and the health data marketplace differentiates it from other similar services and will create a pathway for future healthcare applications to be launched on the platform. +3


We arrive at a score of +6 for Medicalchain. The score captures the growth potential of the project but also incorporates some execution level concerns.

Investment Details

  • Token Type: Utility
  • Platform: Ethereum
  • Symbol: MEDTOKEN
  • Pre-sale: Sold out
  • Public sale: 1 February 2018
  • Initial value: 1 MEDTOKEN = 0.25 USD
  • Hard cap: 24,000,000 USD
  • Total Tokens: 500,000,000
  • Available for Token Sale: 35%
  • Website link:
  • Jurisdictions Barred from Participating: U.S

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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ICO Analysis: Electrify.Asia




According to the Globalist, “developing countries in Asia are now entering their most energy-intensive phase of development. In line with rising living standards, they increase their consumption for industrialization, infrastructure, transportation and development.”

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Analysts expect that by 2030, half of the demand in energy markets will come from China and India – the other countries in Asia will also make up significant percentage of demand. With this in mind, Asian countries will need to provide consumers with energy security at affordable prices. If they don’t, they won’t be able to meet the burgeoning demand of their rapidly growing populations. However, energy security at affordable prices is very difficult to accomplish.

In light of this, Electrify.Asia is looking to capitalize on Asia’s growing energy security needs. The company aims to “enable the decentralization of power production and bring the power of choice to the consumer.” Essentially, Electrify.Asia is using blockchain technology to disrupt the massive energy industry in Asia by providing both transparency and lower prices to consumers.


The Electrify.Asia token (ELEC) will be implemented using the Ethereum ERC20. ELEC holders generate value from the token in three ways: (1) loyalty rewards for consumers, (2) the ability to pay transaction fees, and (3) the ability to pay listing deposits for access to Electrify.Asia’s ecosystem.

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According to the white paper, 54% of the funds raised will go towards development, technology and research, 20% towards staffing (HR), 10% towards legal and accounting, 10% towards business development and partnerships, and the rest of the pot (6%) towards operations.

ELEC tokens are valued at $0.08 per 1 ELEC token. The total amount of tokens to be sold is capped at 375,000,000 ELEC. However, the total token supply will capped at 750,000,000 ELEC. The token distribution is as follows: 50% for token sale, 18.4% for team and future members (vesting: 50% at each 6 month interval), 9.0% for advisors and partners, 18.5% for treasury and community development, and 4.1% for airdrop to the community.

The company has not yet stated its intention to list the ELEC tokens on any major crypto exchanges.  


Electrify.Asia’s core team consists of two senior executives, three business development professionals, two developers, and an operations professional. As compared with the majority of ICOs, Electrify.Asia has a relatively solid team.  

The company’s CEO, Julius Tan, was previously a Solar Research Engineer at the National University of Singapore and an energy trader at an unspecified energy company. Tan has also held a variety of positions at the Singapore Economic Development Board, Standard Chartered Bank and Schlumberger. Additionally, Tan received a BA and MA in Engineering at the University of Cambridge. The company’s COO, Martin Lim, is a 20+ year veteran of the mass communication industry. Lim has worked at a variety of companies including: InMobi, HTC, StarMedia, and Sunseap Energy.

The company’s advisors include the CEO of Omise, a VC executive, a solar executive, an AI/ML researcher, a software engineer, and a compliance executive.


Electrify.Asia presents a highly speculative buying opportunity for investors interested in long-term capital appreciation.  

Energy security is the foundation for developing Asia’s economic transformation, prosperity and development. By decentralizing energy markets across Asia, the company will provide a much needed reform that will lower costs and bring energy security to many emerging market consumers.

However, the primary concern is market adoption across developing Asia. While Electrify.Asia’s technology has a strong potential to be adopted across the developed countries in Asia-Pacific (Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Australia), developing countries across Asia are likely many years away from accepting the technology that the company offers.

Basically, there’s a lot of risk for the company in the developing countries across Asia. In contrast, developed countries in the Asia-Pacific region will likely be open to using the technology. While Electrify.Asia has a strong chance of being successful across developed markets, the company will face many tough hurdles in expanding into some of their target markets (such as: Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Thailand, China, India, etc.).


Scaling across Asia is a long and costly process. Each country requires localization, on-the-ground teams, and extensive regulatory compliance. The company’s team may be underestimating the total time and cost of their overall strategy – it’s likely to be much greater than expected. -2

Energy markets in South East Asia are highly regulated and still have infrastructure gaps. While Singapore may be the first country in the region to liberalize its energy market, developing countries (such as: Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.) still lack the infrastructure to be able to do so. Meaning, the company’s technology may be too early for their target markets. -2

Beyond technology risk, market adoption risk runs high for Electrify.Asia. Unless governments across Asia liberalize their energy markets, there is no incentive for energy companies to adopt the added expense of using Electrify.Asia’s platform/ecosystem. -1

Localization in emerging markets will require the company to be able to accept over-the-counter cash payments – many emerging market consumers do not use or have access to credit cards. This will require many strategic partnerships across Asia and is not mentioned as a strategy in the white paper. -1

Growth Opportunity:

Provided the company can successfully scale across Asia, the company will benefit from a large and diverse customer base that is increasingly becoming wealthier and larger (relative to the anaemic growth in the West). With this in mind, global spending by the middle class is expected to reach $35 trillion by 2020 and $56 trillion by 2030 – over 80% of this growth is coming from Asia. Asia’s emerging middle class is shifting the world’s consumer spending paradigm (they’re demanding higher transparency) – Electrify.Asia will be a prime beneficiary of this shift, since energy markets are currently opaque. +4

According to the Asian Development Bank, “annual energy expenditure in Asia is expected to grow from US$700 billion to $US1.6 trillion by 2035.” The company stands to benefit from a large, rapidly growing market that is characterized by significant greenfield opportunities and long-term growth potential. +4  

As developed markets in Asia liberalize their energy markets, Electrify.Asia doesn’t have any real competition to tend with. Basically, the company will benefit from a significant first-mover advantage. +4


Electrify.Asia has a great vision and a solid team, however the company’s technology may be too early for many developing countries across Asia. Provided the company can shift focus to solely the developed countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Japan, South Korea, Australia and Singapore), the company will have a strong potential to become successful.

Beyond technology risk, execution risk and the amount of capital needed for large-scale geographical expansion is being understated by the company – a hard cap of $30M isn’t nearly enough. Additionally, there’s a lot of unanswered questions related to the company’s business development model and approach to strategic partnerships.

Overall, even though technology, market adoption, and execution risk runs high, the company still stands a chance to be the dominant player in the newly liberalized energy markets across developed Asia.

Against this backdrop, we believe that a score of 6 out of 10 is warranted.

Investment Details:

  • Type: Crowdsale
  • Symbol: ELEC
  • Pre-Sale: N/A
  • Public Sale: February 23, 2018
  • Payments Accepted: ETH

Disclaimer: The writer has no position in Electrify.Asia at the time of writing.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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ICO Analysis: COTI



The global payments industry comprises of many different entities, intermediaries, clearing houses, banks processors, gateways, and of course merchants and consumers. COTI is striving to become the de facto payment mechanism for merchants to transmit business in cryptocurrency (their own, XCT, as well as others) and fiat. The COTI overview paper states: “The COTI team was formed to fill this void. COTI combines the best of traditional payments systems with the best of digital currencies — while working around their respective limitations — to provide a comprehensive payments solution that optimizes for the needs of typical consumers and merchants above all else”.

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For those of you that are unfamiliar with the payments industry, there are certain entities involved when conducting payment transactions using traditional payment rails and the use of card brands like Visa and MasterCard. Let’s go through the traditional process; there is a cardholder, aka the consumer, as well as the merchant who wishes to accept payment for products or services and obtains a merchant account to do so. A payment gateway authorizes credit card payments and is what securely transfers payment information between the merchant’s website or POS machine and merchant account. The payment processor works to process the credit card transaction from start to finish. It does this by connecting the merchant account with the payment gateway so it can receive the transaction details and it also connects the gateway to the Credit Card Network for authorization from the issuing bank. The issuing bank issues credit cards to consumers. They are responsible for paying the acquiring bank for the purchases their cardholders make.

The credit card network helps to connect the issuing and acquiring banks by routing the appropriate transaction information between the two banks. The acquiring bank is also referred to as the merchant bank because they create and maintain merchant accounts that allow a merchant’s business to accept credit and debit cards. So, if you ever wondered what happens when you swipe your card, there you go. As you can see, there are lots of opportunity for blockchain based companies in this space because of the multiple entity transaction chains currently involved. These chains drive up costs in the form of fees to the merchant. The question is, how does COTI fit into this trillion dollar industry?  

The overview paper was very well written with detailed descriptions of applications and services of the organization, including a wallet with an internal exchange and virtual debit card for consumers, processing tools for merchants which looks like a virtual gateway and a platform for mediators to review disputes within their network. The COTI fee structure is based on a Trust Score derived from the transaction history of that individual or merchant. 

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The company also states:

“In addition to taking measures to counter Trust Score manipulation, COTI ensures that parties with low Trust Scores have a clear path to achieving higher Trust Scores. COTI has no intention of enforcing low Trust Scores on any one party in perpetuity, and actively encourages network participants to engage in organic, good-faith efforts to increase their scores. If a low-scoring party can demonstrate its value to the network by engaging in honest, trustworthy conduct, over time this value will be reflected in the party’s Trust Score.”


The token is a native currency called XCT; the company has not determined which blockchain they will be connecting to their internal ledger platform per the white paper. COTI’s native digital currency sits at the center of the COTI network and fuels the interactions between consumers, merchants and mediators. XCT was purpose-built to overcome the barriers that have limited the widespread adoption of digital currencies in day-to-day payments. All fees incurred in the course of using the COTI network are payable in XCT. The levying of fees denominated in XCT applies to all transactions, irrespective of the currency being used to affect the underlying payment. Mediator stakes and payouts are always denominated in XCT. As such, mediators will be required to hold XCT units whenever they wish to engage in mediation. XCT functions as a medium of exchange that can be used when making and receiving payments for goods or services.


The core team comprises a few individuals with both a background in payments and the tech sector as well as previous startup experience. The company looks to have many more advisors than core staff, including those from the academic area, banking and payments space to shepherd the project along. Several advisors were also featured in the company’s promo video and are also being featured on the token sale site before the core team. This makes the optics seem like the advisors are the actual team when that is not the case.



  • There are initial doubts about the level of adoption by mainstream merchants – why this crypto payment option compared to all of the others?. –1
  • No mention of target customer segment. The payments industry is massive and this needs to be niche to start if there is any hopes of adoption and eventually network effects. -1.5
  • We are skeptical of the trust score to determine fees of the network. There are claims about stopping trust score manipulation but I wonder about those average consumers without transaction history why is this network attractive for them? –1

Growth Potential 

  • Adding buyer and seller protections through mediators is a strong play for gaps in the existing digital currency area. + 2  
  • COTI will be able to handle a high throughput of transactions from the outset, initially in the order of 10,000 transactions per second (TPS), and its architecture will be able to scale to accommodate far higher throughputs. All transactions will be confirmed instantly +3
  • Low to zero fee approach can attract existing high-risk merchants who can pay fees upwards of 10%. This would be your adult entertainment, online pharmacy, CBD merchants, etc. COTI may prove as a viable option for them but no mention of target segment was revealed. + 3
  • The project claims high approval rates for cross-border e-commerce transactions, which will yield lower cart abandonment rates for e-commerce merchants and higher conversions. +2


Based on the above analysis, we arrive at a score of 6.5 out of 10 for COTI. The project has potential to add scalability to the crypto-payments space with the 10,000 TPS upon launch. The technology, the stack of backers, advisors, and concept look strong but can the organization drive merchant adoption? When will there be revenue realized and transactions happening in volumes to produce revenues to generate value for the XCT currency? These are key considerations that are still up in the air.

Investment Details

  • Type: Crowdsale
  • Symbol: XCT
  • Token Sale: ?
  • Platform: ?
  • Tokens Available Via ICO: ?
  • Token Price: ?

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock. 

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