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Can a New Generation of Regulated Token Sales Save ICOs?

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The bad news first: ICOs are in big trouble.

You wouldn’t think so just by looking at the stats: just last week, 400 ICOs were announced according to one of the many ICO newsletters that have gained traction. Last quarter, over $ 1,5 bln were raised by projects accepting primarily or exclusively cryptocurrencies and handing out a token in return. The cottage industry around this new vehicle has grown exponentially, with entire marketing firms and PR agencies rearranging their business to exclusively serve the ICO market.

Upon closer inspection though, a rather different picture emerges. More and more ICOs are missing their funding goals (source: Architect Partners).

And some of the most successful ICOs of the past months are in turbulences, too. One of them is already fighting over money. A second one is having trouble delivering the promised tokens to investors, leading some to speculate on its impending implosion. Compared to startups, most crypto ICOs have failed to deliver on a minimum viable product and real adoption, even with millions of funding in the vaults. And of those startups that successfully raise funds, only 1 in 10 actually use the token in their network.

What about that cottage industry? It’s not looking much better. From scam artists to shady “ICO advisors”, from rampant FB marketing to pump & dump Telegram groups, Russian bots, false followers, fake endorsements, email phishing, and insecure Slack channels with millions stolen from investors as a consequence.

This is very much still a wild, wild west.

But the problems run much deeper.

Originally, blockchain evangelists promised us greater decentralization, democratization and true financial freedom, independent from institutions such as banks and governments. But has this vision of the world really come to pass, or even taken a good step closer to being realized? Is the world more equitable thanks to crypto & blockchain?

In reality, most, or many of the projects are even more inequitable than the broader economy. If you take a look at the Gini coefficient of a couple projects using the ICO Transparency Monitor, here’s what you find:

Gnosis:

EOS:

district0x:

Bancor:

At present, ICOs go mostly to savvy old world investors through pre-sales with the smaller investors often times ‘holding the bag’.

What’s still sorely missing are industry level institutions that take on the task of self-regulation. Any functioning branch of the economy has watchdogs, industry associations, quality certificates, and auditors. Ultimately, any economy needs trust and reliable rules in order to function.

For the first seven years, the crypto world talked mostly about technical innovation and societal critique-by-creating. Now, the conversation has started to shift. The enormous sums of money involved created an urgent demand for answers to questions of legality. What are we to expect from regulators? How will governments treat this new technology? The crypto community is realizing that if it wished to maintain and further develop its reach into mainstream society, tech was not enough to get the job done.

This solves a big problem: how do you enable non-blockchain companies to make use of the technologies advantages? Surveying the current blockchain landscape, the large majority of ventures in the space are themselves blockchain projects.
Current ICOs are also near exclusively run by on-chain companies. They offer utility tokens which you can use for on-chain products. Neufund however allows investors to invest into off-chain companies by putting shares on-chain.On first sight, this is something impossible because shares are some piece of paper or a certificate. Anybody who takes this on faces a huge legal challenge.
But there is a solution: the nominee structure. The nominee holds the shares, the nominee issues the tokens. That is per se totally legal in Germany and any other European jurisdiction.

The first seeds of this self-regulation efforts are forming: the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance (EEA) has been successful at gathering the large corporates under its wings. There are now several initiatives starting the work of educating the public and regulators alike, and crafting policy recommendations for the relevant authorities to adopt (e.g. Blockchain Policy Initiative). Some have even been successful in convincing local and state governments to run entire campaigns for attracting startups in the space to their jurisdiction. Forward thinking mayors and governments are quickly realizing the value of competing early in the coming trend of jurisdictional arbitrage.

Rulesets are a competitive advantage, and an increasingly necessary one in a globalized world. Estonia was one of the earliest to realize this and begin its modernization. In the 90s, the tiny country (1.3M residents) upgraded its governmental and business infrastructure to the internet, making it possible to sign contracts, open bank accounts, and file taxes without ever having to visit a notary or governmental office. Now, the country takes it one step further and offers the benefits of its infrastructure to anyone via the “e-Residency program”. It has attracted thousands of entrepreneurs and digital nomads, many of which also innovating in the cryptocurrency and blockchain space. With the ground prepared for instant adoption, Estonia is even considering to launch an “Estcoin” in their efforts to open source their rulesets for the benefit of all. Many other countries all over the globe have joined the race to be the new ‘silicon valley of crypto’, with Switzerland currently in the lead.

Stricter regulation can benefit startups looking for funding via token sales as well. As Andre Eggert, partner at Lacore LLC, puts it: “Securities law is making sure that the market has the information it needs. An informed market is more liquid and that might even result in increased prices and demand for tokens.”

And already there are a number of companies rising to the challenge. In the US, Equibit and t0 work on bringing equity and financial instruments more generally into the token era. Filecoin, in collaboration with Coinlist, pioneered the SAFT agreement which has since been adopted by a large number of ICOs. Now, Pegasus Fintech is floating the idea for a novel type of token-assisted fundraising they call PIBCO: Public Initial Blockchain Offering.

“The PIBCO model advances the ability of Blockchain and Cryptocurrency based businesses to raise funding in a global environment and meet jurisdictional regulatory compliance.”

~ David Lucatch, Founder & Chair of Pegasus Fintech

In this model, Listed corporates will be able to release Class A shares for conventional currency and Class B shares for cryptocurrency tokens. The tokens are then redeemable for Class B shares, which in turn will be redeemable for Class A shares. Clever!

Over in Europe, a number of ICO platforms routinizing the tech and marketing, but none have brought much legal innovation to the table. The German financial authority BaFin recently announced that it is watching the ICO space closely, warning both ICO organizers and investors to be careful. So far Neufund is the only player in the European market to explicitly push forward the legal and regulatory aspects. A German GmbH (private limited company), Neufund has created what they call Equity Token Offerings (ETO). They plan to make this mechanism available to any number of companies, independent of whether their business model is based on blockchain.

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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Zoe Adamovicz is an experienced entrepreneur and occasional angel investor. She is passionate about building technology businesses that are impactful, positive and at the same time profitable and powerful. Prior to Neufund, Zoe founded Xyo, a company that re-imagines how people discover apps, Priori Data (app store intelligence), and Concise Software which provides software development and engineering services. She is also a mentor to the Gaza Sky Geeks, where she supports technology entrepreneurship in the challenging area of the Gaza Strip and helps introduce Blockchain. As an expert in technology entrepreneurship and venture capital, she has been following the blockchain space closely for several years. She decided to found Neufund when she realized the potential of blockchain for democratizing access to funding, and changing the VC game for good.




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2 Comments

2 Comments

  1. replicah

    December 14, 2017 at 4:25 pm

    Good article, well done Sam, there’s some very dangerous patterns emerging from ICOs and I hope the market matures ASAP

    • Manymoney

      December 14, 2017 at 5:14 pm

      The writer here went berseck from this point to the other point, the writer should realise that IPO are 99% scams, all loses the people investment, only 1 % of the total Ipos gives some sort of profits at best 20%, erc20 tokens are in its nascent stage, but everyone can track thru blockchain whats going on; whereas Ipos were shady and dark, the investors hardly knows what happens from 4 pm till 9.30 am (example of Indian stock exchange).. currency trading has sat and sunday off and some special holidays, whoever are early adopters of Cryptologies now are good for the future, in this materialistic, its naturally to found bad actors, but they can be caught easily cause txn are done in blockchain, there are many ERC20 tokens who never did ICOs like Postoken, blue, Rebellious and has already made a mark in the market; the show has just began, 95% wealth of 5% populations are going to be equally distributed and will happen.

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Decentralization

Cache Me If You Can: Crypto Trading, Decentralized

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Spot exchanges, over-the-counter/OTC trading desks, and futures contracts would likely rank amongst the most popular methods for trading cryptocurrencies between two or more parties.

Despite their popularity though, most of these trading venues utilise centralised infrastructure in at least one area of their operations.

When combined with the endemic security threats which crypto trading services regularly face: centralized fundamental functions are a considerable threat to users who value the privacy of their transactions.

“A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”

Cryptocurrency is still a burgeoning industry, with the number of ICOs and market investment having increased by several multiples even just over the past eight months when compared to the whole of 2017.

Despite this: concerning conventions have already established themselves that challenge the original vision prescribed by Satoshi Nakamoto for Bitcoin.

The enigmatic Satoshi Nakamoto became a legend upon publication of his seminal cryptocurrency white-paper entitled ‘Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System’ (and if you haven’t read it, you really should!).

Since then, the document has served as an conceptual blueprint which has been referenced by a great number of subsequent altcoins: evident by the widespread implementation of Bitcoin’s core mechanics. An example of this is has come to be known as cryptocurrency mining, or the ‘Proof of Work’ consensus algorithm.

P2P vs  P2intermediary2P?

Peer-to-peer (P2P) denotes transactions that are made between two parties without the need for an intermediary to facilitate or authorise the trade.

Mike Orcutt, associate editor at the MIT Technology Review wrote in April 2018 that:

“The whole point of using a blockchain is to let people—in particular, people who don’t trust one another—share valuable data in a secure, tamperproof way…

“One supposed security guarantee of a blockchain system is ‘decentralization.’ If copies of the blockchain are kept on a large and widely distributed network of nodes, there’s no one weak point to attack, and it’s hard for anyone to build up enough computing power to subvert the network”

Whilst this is true for many blockchains and their associated blocks for decentralized cryptocurrencies: most middle-man’ who process trades and transaction utilise a centralised system known as an ‘order book’ upon which future transaction and trade values are calculated.

In June 2009, mere months after Nakamoto’s Bitcoin paper was released to the world, a cross-departmental team from Stanford University published a related and highly recommended investigation into the contemporary status of the order-book.

The authors state that:

“most markets are order-driven, where any market participant is free to provide liquidity by submitting a buy or sell order. Submitted orders are amalgamated by price to create a limit order book. The[re is a] rule driven execution of orders in these limit order books and [also] extensive data that is available for order driven markets.”

With  a centralised order-boook; all the data pertaining to transactions: such as receiver and sender addresses, value of tokens, and dates could be all-but-publicly accessible in the case of a hack or successful unwanted intrusion.

Peer-to-Peer Trading: What Can Be Done?

One solution which we have seen numerous examples of are organisations which claim to be ‘decentralized exchanges’.

On the 9th of August 2018, for example, well-known yet controversial ex-China based cryptocurrency exchange Binance launched a pre-alpha build of their highly anticipated decentralized exchange which they call ‘DEX’.

Conversely, Binance has been subject to more than their fair share of negative press and public feedback as of late and earning trust for their future projects will be no easy feat. They have to contend with hackers, pundits, and a 5.9/10 ranking on Trustpilot.

Another notable release comes from blockchain development platform Stratis, a competitor to Ethereum’s ‘platform for platforms’ and ranked in 50th place on CoinMarketCap as of writing.

The ‘Breeze Wallet with Breeze Privacy Protocol’ launched on the 1st August 2018, and it is a means of facilitating pure peer-to-peer, user-to-user, fully decentralized transactions. As a result, Breeze hopes to introduce centralized intermediaries to the realm of obsolescence, by way of a token-tumbling protocol called ‘TumbleBit’.

If you know of any more projects which have been making recent progress – please let us know in the comments section!

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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Op-Ed

Disrupting the Cloud: ANKR Network

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Since the creation of bitcoin and the introduction of the “Proof of Work” (POW) algorithm, many have been concerned about the vast use of computing power and energy and their negative side effects. Currently, cloud computing is projected to be a trillion dollar market, yet it is monopolized by some of the largest tech conglomerates in the world. Only giants in the likes of Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud can afford the high human capital cost and upfront server costs to run a successful cloud operation that spans the globe. However, the aforementioned companies tend to charge the customer with a higher margin of cost.

New developments in blockchain technology aim to resolve these issues by improving the efficiency and effectiveness of cloud computing. Being an innovative solution to this computing and consumer problem, Ankr Network brings the benefits of decentralization to cloud computing and balances value between buyers and sellers via crypto economics, Oracle service and distributed computing.

Ankr Network

Ankr Network is an innovative platform, which aims to create a resource-efficient blockchain architecture for a distributed cloud computing system and an easy-to-use infrastructure for the building of business applications. Ankr is the first cloud computing solution to leverage both blockchain and trusted hardware of Intel SGXs. The SGX hardware will allow developers of applications to protect data from unauthorized access and modification and preserve the confidentiality and integrity of information.

Technical solutions include:

  • Consensus Algorithm Proof of Useful Work (PoUW)
  • Platform for distributed cloud computing (DCC)
  • Oracle integrated service
  • Structural support for sidechains

The consensus looks like this:

Anrk upgrades mining with its consensus “Proof of Useful Work” (PoUW), which provides a sustainable block structure. Specifically, PoUW directs power and computing capacity which was used on hashes in POW algorithms such as bitcoin for processing tasks provided by businesses and consumers on the blockchain. Therefore, one can say Ankr upgrades mining to a higher level, allowing equipment holders to receive a financial incentive for block creation and real-world tasks processing.

To explain this better, consider the following: the golden standard algorithm is one where the nodes on the blockchain require:

1) That tasks performed to solve problems is actually quantifiable work;

2) That the processing of these tasks provides some form of value to any party on the network

The Ankr Network appears capable of achieving this gold standard. Alternatively, existing POW in networks such as bitcoin and Ethereum only achieve the first point – nodes use computing power and energy to prove that work was done (but such amount of work is wasted without any utility).

Ankr solves this key technical limitation in bitcoin and Ethereum by including a second point in its consensus algorithm, thus making all the work done by nodes directed on the processing of tasks that could bring added value utility to the network participants.

Ethereum processes all smart contracts on one chain in a serial sequence, which bottlenecks throughput and dramatically reduces the usability, especially when there are large contracts with complicated data on the chain. Plasma is a protocol to solve the scalability issue by building a tree structure of blockchains, where various application chains (Child or Plasma Chains) are connected to a single root chain (Main Chain). Plasma chains can allow applications to handle their specific smart contracts transactions on side chains, thus balancing potential overload of the network.

The efficiency of the main chain can be significantly improved by offloading a number of transactions from the main chain to Plasma chains, especially if proper incentives are given to Plasma operators. Currently, Oracle solutions exist separately from the blockchain framework and are limited in compatibility. Ankr proposes a user-friendly universal AP (application programming interface) I for each child chain to connect to off-chain entities. Existing business can build decentralized autonomous applications on the child chain with powerful computing power and native data feed service provided by the main chain.

 

The Native Oracle (NOS) service provides an authenticated data feed by using both cryptographic primitives and a trusted execution environment (TEE). Thanks to a standardized API for transferring data from existing data sources like websites, NOS allows customers to simplify business in the real world. Basically, this means that blockchain can allow integrating smart contract execution with data sources through a protected gateway.

Intel SGX

Intel SGX (Software Guard Extensions) is a new set of instructions that permits execution of an application inside a hardware enclave, which protects the application’s integrity and confidentiality against certain forms of hardware and software attacks, including hostile operating systems. This lowers entry barriers for miners and provides security and privacy.

Distributed Cloud Computing (DCC) Platform

As internet technology advances, massive amounts of data including text, audio, video, etc. have been created. However, most of this data is neither organized nor relevant to each other. Processing the data in a serial sequence (traditional blockchain) becomes less and less resource efficient and can’t be tolerated by the rapid velocity of business development.

Ankr overcomes these shortcomings through its DDC platform, which enables P2P transactions. Miners will provide their computing power to support the blockchain, as well as sending surplus power for cloud computing calculations.

A P2P network allows application owners and individual users (i.e., requesters) to rent computing power from other users (suppliers). Currently, the cloud computing resources in popular blockchain networks such as bitcoin or Ethereum are exclusively controlled by the centralized cloud service providers and are subject to rigid operation models. A decentralized cloud computing platform can incorporate a blockchain-based payment system, which can allow for direct payment among operators (requesters), sellers (suppliers) and software developers.

Now, we will cover what other projects in this field are doing in comparison to Ankr as a reference project.

Golem

Users of Golem are only incentivized for cloud computing and Golem is using third party computing containers like Docker.

SONM

This project is very similar to Golem, but with a different application field. Golem is focused on rendering, but SONM is focused on the adoption of existing architectures (currently server hosting).

IExec

This project is also similar to Golem and SONM, but its application focus is decentralized cloud computing in specific research applications.

In comparison with the projects above, users of Ankr have different incentives that come from mining, transaction (or smart contract) and cloud computing. Also, Ankr does not use third party platforms for computational power; instead, it uses the computing power of miners.

In my opinion, an additional limitation of Golem, SONM, and IExec is that they have based their development on traditional computing architectures, which are used in data centers, thus limiting their potential computing power and scope of tasks. The reason lies in the fact that data center architecture is working on one technical parameter, which is not optimal for distributed computing where the topology of each device changes frequently and will result in a costly overhead in data transfer and decrease the stability of the network. Ankr technology allows bypassing such limitations, which results in a wider applicability and scope of their network.

Overall, if the Ankr network team can create a network that uses PoUW to reach consensus by applying all the computational energy to useful use and not wasting it, then cloud computing services as Amazon Web, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure are likely to face serious competition soon.

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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4.9 stars on average, based on 9 rated postsVladislav Semjonov has a legal and financial background. He has been involved in crypto space since early 2017 in both ICO advising positions in several ICO consultancy firms, and as an ICO analyst for VC. He began contributing for Hacked.com in April 2017.




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Our Review of the MJAC CryptoCompare Summit in London, UK (13 June 2018)

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Disclaimer: This was my first attendance at such an event since beginning my career as a professional and independent cryptocurrency and /or blockchain journalist.

 I am not affiliated with the event organisers nor do I know them personally, and the same goes for all organisations in attendance as of the time of writing.

[official photographs here]

Earlier this month, I attended the ‘MJAC CryptoCompare Blockchain Summit’ and concluded that the best approach would be to cover the event in a candid matter.

There weren’t any scandals or controversies to speak of. What we mean by this is that this piece intends to cover the greatest pros and cons of the event, in hindsight (which was organised and executed by CryptoCompare in collaboration with MJAC).

First off, MJAC (AKA InvestorsHub) is an organisation that you aren’t likely to have heard of. They are the events and conferences arm of ADVFN, a prominent financial services organisation. Many of the same people responsible for the successful ‘Marijuana Annual Conference’ were also behind the conference in question, hence the acronym ‘MJAC’.

Many of you should be fully aware of CryptoCompare. They are arguably one of the most utilised data resources for up-to-date and historical data on market trends, respective per-coin values, and overall trade volume.

Location and Venue

The days proceedings took place at a venue called ‘Old Billingsgate’.

It’s a listed building which features a combination of historical architecture with modern internal fittings and is located close to Monument tube station. Its name derives from the nearby historic Old Billingsgate Market area.

The choice of venue couldn’t have been much better thanks in part to the location’s iconic and unobstructed view across the Thames River: including the Tower of London in clear sight, plus The Shard being mostly-visible nearby.

Old Billingsgate benefits from being highly accessible to attendees and participants due to its central location, however this is where the positive words I have for the venue start to run dry.

The aesthetic was great, and photographs show a busy yet not overpopulated show floor. The show started with a similar number as represented for most of the day, but later in the day the floor became packed and somewhat claustrophobic.

This atmosphere wasn’t helped by the fact that the space here felt both condensed and underutilised at the same time, with all the stalls leaving small hallways to brush past other visitors.

Conversely, over half of the two stories of open areas in the venue were dedicated to two theatre spaces, one large and one small. These rooms were well arranged and hosted all the one-day summit’s speakers and panelists.

Speeches and Panels

Speakers and individual panel attendees of course were responsible for many of the day’s highlights, as well as the presence of a combination of established and up-and-coming companies/ICOs.

Vitaly Kedyk (Executive Director of CEX.IO) and Claire Wells (Director of Legal & Business Affairs for EMEA at Circle) were two of the events strongest performers, whilst other notable speakers & panellists included representatives from CoinFloor, Ripple, BlockEx, and Coinbase – to name a few.

Unfortunately, not all panellists seemed to be ideal matches for such discussions. A couple that I attended, for example, featured a combination of experts whose interactions were often close to non-existent with each other. What’s more, top participants were easily distinguished by their contribution of valuable insights and answers than their peers in some circumstances.

Organisation and execution of the event overall is something to be lauded. Every speech and panel I saw started and finished with perfect timing, suggesting a great approach to planning. There was also a great atmosphere amongst participants and all I spoke to.

Success or Failure?

The qualification and quantification of any event’s success or failure should arguably be defined in several ways. Cryptocurrency is still growing as an industry (despite what the market tracking values may indicate), which gives us less of a general standard against which to measure them.

One way we can still utilise though, is to measure its performance in hindsight and considering the organisers’ own stated ambitions / agenda.

“The pace of development in the crypto space has rapidly picked up in the past year and it Is now more important than ever to gather the top thought leaders to showcase progress and discuss challenges. MJAC will give customers, investors, and regulators a chance to glimpse into the future direction of this exciting new industry.”Charles Hayter, CryptoCompare.

This quote was taken from the first page of a complimentary guide that was available to all attendees.

It came along with a free book (‘CryptoAssets’ by Chris Burniske and Jack Tatar), which is honestly not bad as a beginners and intermediate level guide aimed primarily at non-technical crypto enthusiasts.

For all intents and purposes, the organisation achieved their stated goal to a degree, however the sequel had better be much more impressive to excuse the lack of experience on British soil (one of the largest crypto economies in Europe, and arguably one of if not the financial capital).

A Relative Conclusion

The second and final way (that we will discuss here) you can measure such an event is through comparison to other events, which are popping up around the world as well as within London alone despite market indicators.

One of these is the similarly titled ‘Blockchain Summit London 2018’. It is set to be a much larger event: boasting approximately 2,500 attendees and over 150 speakers.

It also costs approximately £400 for the two-day event and is set in the well-known Olympia venue in Kensington, West London. Taking place just a couple of weeks after the MJAC CryptoCompare conference.

MJAC CryptoCompare Blockchain Summit was the first event held by these event organisers about cryptocurrency in London. On that end: it is not entirely fair to consider it an equal comparison with this rival, especially when tickets were the relatively low price of £100.

Despite this I can’t help but admit that I was perhaps expecting more from this ‘summit’, if not a little too much.

7/10

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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