Worried about security for your bitcoin in the face of quantum computing? According to computer researchers, there’s no reason to be.
Some people assume that once quantum computing comes along modern encryption technologies will be outpowered. But experts are starting to posit that hash functions and asymmetric encryption could defend not only against modern computers, but also against quantum attackers from the future.
Matthew Amy from Canada’s University of Waterloo proposes just this in a paper by the International Association of Cryptologic Research.
Amy, and researchers from Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, examined attacks against SHA-2 and SHA-3 with Grover’s algorithm.
Grover’s algorithm is a quantum algorithm that finds with high probability the input to black box functions that produce particular, and predictable, output values.
Grover’s algorithm could brute-force a 128-bit symmetric cryptographic key in roughly 264 iterations,” Wikipedia states, “or a 256-bit key in roughly 2128 iterations. As a result, it is sometimes suggested that symmetric key lengths be doubled to protect against future quantum attacks.”
Researchers surmise SHA-256 and SHA3-256 need 2166 “logical qubit cycles” to break, and the paper suggests quantum papers pose little threat, though classical processors will need to manage them.
The paper notes: “The main difficulty is that the coherence time of physical qubits is finite. Noise in the physical system will eventually corrupt the state of any long computation,” the paper states. “Preserving the state of a logical qubit is an active process that requires periodic evaluation of an error detection and correction routine.”
With ASICs running at a few million hashes per second, it would take Grover’s algorithm 10^32 years to crack SHA-256 or SHA3-256. That is longer than the universe has existed.
As The Register adds: “Even if you didn’t care about the circuit footprint and used a billion-hash-per-second Bitcoin-mining ASIC, the calculation still seems to be in the order of 10^29 years.”
SHA-2 is the set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA), an intelligence branch of the US government under scrutiny for ubiquitous surveillance due to revelations released by Edward Snowden. SHA stands for “Secure Hash Algorithm.”
These hash functions represent mathematical operations run by digital means Cryptographic hash functions boast collision resistance, which means attackers cannot find two different input values that result in the same hash output. The SHA-2 family is comprised of altogether six hash functions with hash values that are 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, SHA-512/224, SHA-512/256.
SHA-256 and SHA-512 are novel hash functions computed with 32-bit and 64-bit words, respectively.
Images from Shutterstock.
Technical Analysis: Volatility on the Rise Again, as Ripple and Ethereum Hit Targets
Ripple has been the star of today’s session in the cryptocurrency segment, as the only major coin on a long-term buy signal in our trend model continued yesterday’s break-out, and surged to a new all-time high. The currency cleared the $0.425 level that marked the top in May, and after the more than 6-month long consolidation phase, it promptly neared the $0.50 level.
While the short-term momentum indicators are now stretched, the coin is still in an encouraging long-term setup, although the best period to buy already passed. The coin could be dragged lower in the case of the expected broad correction in the segment, but we expect XRP to outperform in the coming period, with support levels found at the prior high and below that in the range between $0.30-$0.32.
XRP/USDT, 4-Hour Chart Analysis
Ethereum has been the other top coin on the rise, as the second largest digital currency surged past the final range projection target of the break-out two weeks ago at $685 in the aftermath of the launch of the BTC futures on Monday. The ETH token is now also on a sell signal on all time-frames, and we advise investors and investors to wait for the next major correction to establish new positions. Support levels are now found at $575, $500, $480, and $400.
ETH/USD, 4-Hour Chart Analysis
Trade Recommendation: Ride the Next Rally of Bitcoin
The profit taking period that saw the Bitcoin market fall from 19,697 to a low of 13,501 in a matter of a few days is almost up. The market appears to have generated a new higher low and will use that level to make its next move up.
Technical analysis reveals a large reversal pattern in the hourly chart that could signal the end of the correction. In addition, volume has been steadily decreasing. On Coinbase, volume spiked by as much as three times its average value in the hourly chart during the height of selling. In the last seven hours, however, volume has been way below its average indicating that bears have lot ammunition. More importantly, RSI in the hourly chart is far from overbought territory. This gives the market a lot of room to breach resistance at 18,000.
The strategy is to buy the market when it goes above 18,000. With signs of selling exhaustion, bears may not put up much of a fight the next time the pair breaches 18,000 on Coinbase. Also, the market has no stiff resistance above 18,000 so it has a clear path to our target of 22,500.
Hourly Bitcoin Chart on Coinbase
As of the time of writing, Bitcoin is trading at 17,200.
Summary of Strategy
Buy: breach of 18,000
Support: 17,200, 16,800, and 16,450
Stop: Move below 16,450
Disclaimer: The writer owns bitcoin, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies. He holds investment positions in the coins, but does not engage in short-term or day-trading.
Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.
Technical Analysis: Bitcoin Grinds Higher as Records Tumble in Altcoins
The historical surge in the segment, which is the second such move this year, continued today, with another round of break-outs in some of the major altcoins and tepid gains for BTC investors. Ethereum, Ripple, Dash, and first and foremost Litecoin was leading the charge, with the recent star LTC topping $300, just after a day of hitting the $200 mark.
Litecoin defied all odds after reaching extremely overbought readings, and the coin rode the speculative wave, turning exponential, not unlike IOTA and Bitcoin previously. With the coin being stretched in an unprecedented way on all time-frames, investors could even consider selling their core positions at the current levels, as a deep correction is almost granted in the coming period. The first meaningful support level is found at $125, and a re-test of the $100 level is probable during the next major correction.
LTC/USD, 4-Hour Chart Analysis
Ripple finally ended a long period of relative weakness today, and the only major on a long-term by signal jumped over primary resistance at $0.26 and crossed the $0.30-$0.32 too in the euphoric sentiment. As the coin is not long-term overbought following the 6-month long consolidation, the buy signal in XRP remains intact, with the only major resistance level being found at the all-time high near $0.425.
XRPUSDT/USD, 4-Hour Chart Analysis
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