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Valuing Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Applications

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Arguably the most interesting financial trend of 2017 is the spreading of cryptocurrencies, especially in the Ethereum ecosystem. With the ICO boom of this year, a lot of different business models have been connected to tokens or blockchains of their own. This brings up several questions in the mind value-conscious investors, as given the special properties of these coins, and especially considering the various distribution and usage schemes of the tokens, valuing them is tricky, to say the least.

Whether or not we are in a bubble currently is a layered question, as we are definitely in a huge speculative wave that will end badly for several coins, but the segment is in the early phase of adoption, and the market as a whole will likely multiply in the coming years.

As I concluded in my comparison with the Dot-Com bubble, selective investing in the ICO-boom is vital for long-term investors. To make things more complicated, traditional valuation models generally fail with cryptocurrencies, because of the hybrid stock-commodity properties of them and the novelty of the technology, coupled with the questions regarding the future usage patterns.

Is it possible to set up a framework to analyze all the different business models and value the connected coins? Or is it possible to, at least, determine hard guidelines to follow when selecting the coins to hold or forget? I will answer that question below and in the coming second part of the article.

Where is the Value Coming From?

Valuing Cryptocurrencies

For a traditional analyst, the most interesting question is the source of the value of the tokens. There are several crucial hurdles to clear for a token to be considered valuable on the long-run. Why? Firstly, because as opposed to stocks, holding a token doesn’t give you ownership in the company conducting the ICO, thus the success of the company doesn’t directly increase the value of the coin.

Also, the fact that the blockchain technology and all the main patents and methods are freely available to the public means that an infinite number of tokens and blockchains can be created with no legal hurdle, possibly making the competition fierce, decimating demand for the services behind the token and in turn the token itself.

Another problem with the current ICOs is that even if the idea behind the company is valid, and the demand for the token is organic (we will get back to this soon), there is no guarantee that the execution of the idea won’t be obsolete in a matter of months, let alone years. This is one of the main reasons that a lot of Dot-Com companies failed; it’s nice to be a revolutionary player, but more often than not, markets are ruled by the second or third generation of companies that annihilate the pioneers of a technology, leaving only the nostalgy behind.

Non-Ownership Sources of Value

Of course, besides ownership (which is non-existent in most of the current models) there are several ways that the token can acquire value. The most important, in my opinion, is the organic demand for them, that, together with the inherently limited supply can create an imbalance between demand and supply, driving the price of the “digital commodity” higher.

For the holders of the tokens, a lot of projects also deploy some kind of fixed or variable “rent” or “dividend” (yikes). I am, maybe too much so, skeptical regarding these premiums, as they present an extra cost somewhere in the ecosystem that will create immense incentives to create cheaper “rent-free” alternatives for the given business. So, the existence of such a system, while it might be intriguing, in my opinion, could be the exact reason why that the business will fail. But there is a catch; if a model is strong enough to survive and dominate a, sometimes completely new niche, it could be able to sustain these premiums and give a huge boost to the value of the token. But what will set these winners apart from the rest?

Network Effects

Valuing Cryptocurrencies using network effects

To answer that question, we have to note that both of the above sources of value are based strongly on the network effects. This, sometimes elusive, term is used to describe why in some industries the winner takes all (or at least most of the profits), and some companies enjoy a “natural” monopolistic position.

Think Facebook for social networks, Microsoft for OSs, or a landline phone company in the past. Adding more users to such networks not only decreases the cost of operation per user but actually increases the utility that all (yes, this is a huge simplification here, you geeks out there) users enjoy through the network. Translating that to products according to this great summary:

A product displays positive network effects when more usage of the product by any user increases the product’s value for other users (and sometimes all users)

This makes these networks multiple times more valuable than other ecosystems that don’t sport sustainable network effects. Understanding these effects is very important for judging the future demand for blockchain applications and tokens, and not only because it’s a widely used buzzword in whitepapers, sometimes to blur and ridicule any and every concern regarding the business model. But before we take a closer look at network effects, let’s see the logic behind my valuation approach.

The Logic of Determining The Value of Applications and Tokens

We have to stress that this is only a basic filter, but one that has great heuristical value to move forward in the analysis. According to Fortune:

Jeff Garzik, a leading figure in the blockchain community who runs a consultancy called Bloq, sees ICOs as “transformative” but remains wary. “Ninety-nine percent of these ICOs will be garbage,” he says. “It’s like penny stocks but with less regulation.”

While the 99% might be a bit rough, it is safe to say that most of the current ICOs will end up left behind, while the survivors will multiply several times in value and create the infrastructure for a new crop of businesses that will thrive in the blossoming industry. Still, investors’ primary job in such a nascent segment is to efficiently filter out obvious and less obvious scams, losers, and laggards. For that, the first step is to really understand what’s driving the revolution in the first place.

The Most Important Advantages of the Blockchain Technology

In order to create a framework for valuing cryptocurrencies, we have to be, at least vaguely, aware of the current and possible use cases of the technology. The novelty of the tech makes this very hard and in some cases impossible, but if we keep track of the main advantages of the blockchain we can identify projects and business models that are built upon the real strength of the technology rather than on the hype.

  • Permanent and verified transaction records
  • Simplified databases and tracking functionalities
  • Lower transaction costs and times
  • Security of a decentralized and redundant system
  • Peer-to-peer transmissions
  • Smart-contract logic: rule-based business models and ecosystems

Matching these virtues with the business models is only the first step; while you can identify potential winners, aligning with the strength of the technology doesn’t mean that a venture will be a long-term winner, not to mention the exact “valuation” of the token. These advantages will also take effect in several different levels of the economy, from private, limited user-base blockchains to global transformational systems that might be used by the majority of the citizens of the world. You can see a model of adoption with examples below from the great article of Marco Iansiti and Karim Lakhani.

The Adoption Cycle’s Role in Valuing Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Applications

While that sounds chilling and revolutionary, there is an investment problem here; even if you went back to the 80’s with the knowledge about Google, you couldn’t have directly invested in the company, as not only the founders of the firm were in kindergarten, the infrastructure that the business was based was non-existent. So are we in the 80’s of the blockchain technology? Well, in a way yes, global transformational adoption will likely take at least another decade. That said, my gut feeling is that this adoption cycle, although it will resemble the Internet’s will provide huge surprises; both positive and negative ones.

The Looming Coin-Regulation Storm

It’s hard to overstate the regulatory hurdles that the segment will soon face. The ICOs legal framework is shaky, to say the least, and somehow regulators will try to curb the boom and divert in into a more traditional direction. And in a lot of ways, that would be good for investors as well. A more regulated market would be beneficial in avoiding scams, while letting the currently left-out investors participate in the rise of the new industry.

For the current crop of coins, this is probably the biggest risks out there, as whole ICOs could be deemed illegal, leaving holders of the tokens out in the cold, or facing an uncertain transition into another legal framework that would likely push the value of the ventures and the tokens down.

In the next part of the article, I will take a look at this and other risks that blockchains and systems built upon them face. I will also set-up actionable guidelines to weigh the advantages and the risks of certain applications and cryptocurrencies while forecasting the actual demand for the service and the attached token. To make it more robust, I will integrate some of the traditional valuation methods as well.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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4.6 stars on average, based on 321 rated postsTrader and financial analyst, with 10 years of experience in the field. An expert in technical analysis and risk management, but also an avid practitioner of value investment and passive strategies, with a passion towards anything that is connected to the market.




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12 Comments

12 Comments

  1. icm_24

    July 12, 2017 at 3:49 pm

    can’t wait for the rest. the current crypto market is really depressing and I could use some light at the end of this deep dark tunnel.

  2. Chris G

    July 12, 2017 at 4:07 pm

    In spite of the price crash in Ethereum, I def. still see plenty of potential applied value in that coin. I have a solid long-term position, and set up a modest mining operation to hedge volatility. I’m confident that my equipment investment will be covered in a reasonable time-frame, and am viewing Ethereum within a 3-5 year investment window.

    My largest long-term position is in Litecoin, I really think the Litecoin development team is ahead of the curve. Particularly in terms of scalability confounds, my money is on Litecoin.

  3. pradz

    July 12, 2017 at 5:06 pm

    This article came right out of the caution cauldron where excitement was previously prepped. It pinches the excitement out of cryptocurrencies and gives the reader less legroom(in emotion) for those wanting to really go all out, given the current uncertainty in the market.

    But the 10 year universal adoption is almost possible, maybe even faster, since the infrastructure is in place and we’re still figuring out the networking part, while the answer might lie within the mind of a kindergartner who could well go on to create a bigger tech that gobbles up alt coins like m&m’s.

    Nice piece Mate Cser, wonder where you’ll be in 2027 rewinding all your predictions that went right and those that didn’t. One things’ for sure – Interesting times ahead.

    • Mate Cser

      July 12, 2017 at 5:20 pm

      Hi Pradz,

      I am as excited as ever for the segment, I truly believe blockchain tech is huge thing for productivity growth, which is the key for the coming demographic “autumn”. I have my money in the sector, mostly in BTC and ETH with a few smaller bets elsewhere.

      That said, I am not a believer in predicting the future, just probabilites, and placing careful investments according to them, that’s the point of these articles.

      I hope to be here in 2027,discussing our investments in hindsight. That’s real fun 🙂

    • Chris G

      July 12, 2017 at 7:00 pm

      I particularly like the m&m metaphor *chuckle* …

  4. Chris G

    July 12, 2017 at 8:08 pm

    Nice to see a little ethereum bounce today – wake me up when we hit $1000 🙂 …

    • gafty

      July 12, 2017 at 11:44 pm

      1000 at the end of the year will be for sure!

      • Chris G

        July 13, 2017 at 2:38 pm

        that’d sure be nice 😉

  5. csinkey

    July 13, 2017 at 2:05 am

    Mate Czar – would you share your “smaller bets”? I’m REALLY interested to see which ones you thought were worth taking a bet on given the above thinking

  6. P. H. Madore

    July 24, 2017 at 12:06 am

    “For the holders of the tokens, a lot of projects also deploy some kind of fixed or variable “rent” or “dividend” (yikes). I am, maybe too much so, skeptical regarding these premiums, as they present an extra cost somewhere in the ecosystem that will create immense incentives to create cheaper “rent-free” alternatives for the given business. So, the existence of such a system, while it might be intriguing, in my opinion, could be the exact reason why that the business will fail. But there is a catch; if a model is strong enough to survive and dominate a, sometimes completely new niche, it could be able to sustain these premiums and give a huge boost to the value of the token. But what will set these winners apart from the rest?”

    If the payment is fixed and not dependent on the actual revenues of the firm in question, of course issuing p2p shares through tokenization is a mistake. However, if the dividend payment — part of the proceeds intended to keep the network afloat, not bloated costs — is built into the business model and the figure is reasonable, it’s more of a shareholder + situation. Not only do you have a stake in the firm, but you have premium access to its innards, and, as you mention, limited supply makes you the holder of a potentially even more valuable commodity. Yes, we’ve seen that proof of stake and interest rates do encourage people to horde, but this is not a problem in a supply-demand ecosystem. The cost of the services simply goes up, and the actual numerical derivative payments go down while their value goes up. As such, I think this is actually a feature we need to see more of. But it’s not the main fix that we need to see.

    The main fix that would improve ICOs in our era would be one in which they do not issue themselves any shares at all. Instead, they sell as many tokens as they wish, and buy back as much stake in the company as they wish to have from the token holders. This would mitigate so many problems it’s hard to pretend I need to justify the notion. If your goal is not to hold 100% of the company, but merely to increase its value, buying in at post-ICO rates should be no problem for you, especially since you have the most influence over what goes right and goes wrong — and if the market actually kills you, you’re a rarity. This burgeoning industry can support 100 of any given thing if all 100 are operated correctly. Unfortunately only 2 or 3 ever will be.

  7. Mate Cser

    July 24, 2017 at 7:54 am

    Thanks Paul for the addition! I still feel that this dividend model, while we agree that it’s good for the “shareholder”, is only viable if you already have a strong market position or a competitive advantage in providing the actual service that justifies the extra cost for the users.

    In a blossoming industry, you won’t see huge profits in the growth phase, and the companies have to pour everything into increasing their market share. So, if I have two similar businesses with the only difference being the dividend, I would choose the dividend-less company without a question. I would actually like to see them leveraging growth, not distributing profits; a good business should have a large ROI, why would they give back valuable capital when they see growth ahead? For me, that’s a suspicious sign.

    You are right that the industry can support 100 of any given thing, but still, there is one Facebook, Google, Microsoft… That’s where network effects come in strongly, and fierce competition is guaranteed for the leadership. I want to hold the winners, the really efficient ones (Google vs Yahoo to simplify it). And to be honest, I don’t care too much about the bad reputation of ICOs, market cycles, or bubbles as an investor, if you can choose the real winners with a good percentage and stick to them, you will be rewarded. Wait for a big correction and buy, simple as that.

    I believe that in itself issuing shares or a share-token hybrid of some sorts is not a bad thing. It’s a simple way to distribute the increase in valuation, but of course, your solution is basically the same.

  8. febrocas

    September 12, 2017 at 12:07 am

    Doesn’t seem so terrible after all.

    “According to the human resources consulting firm Challenger Gray & Christmas Inc., some 22,267 dot.com job cuts have been announced since December 1999, when the firm began tracking such data. Of the 274 companies tracked from December 1999 through October 2000, 44 of them — or 16 percent of the total — have since failed. Still, people fired from dot.coms should have no problem finding another job, said John Challenger, the company’s CEO.”

    http://money.cnn.com/2000/11/09/technology/overview/

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Altcoins

Cryptocurrency Rally Stalls as Bitcoin Price Hits Resistance

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Cryptocurrency prices were down across the board on Saturday, with bitcoin – the market’s biggest bellwether – stalling near a key  resistance.

Market Update

After reaching a high of $225.6 billion on Friday, the total cryptocurrency market capitalization has fallen back to $211.3 billion, according to CoinMarketCap. The broad pullback was accompanied by only a minor dip in trading volumes, a sign that profit-taking was a factor.

Six of the top-ten coins (excluding Tether) had reported declines at the start of the weekend. Bitcoin was down 3.5% to trade at $6,355.00 on Bitfinex. The leading digital currency reached a high of $6,619, which is just shy of the most recent peak. Bitcoin’s market still exhibits strong trading volumes, with 24-hour turnover at $4.3 billion.

Among the major altcoins, Ethereum, Stellar Lumens, Litecoin and Cardano had each declined between 1.2% and 3.5%. On the opposite side of the spectrum, XRP, bitcoin cash and EOS had reported gains of at least 1.6%.

Bitcoin’s dominance rate, or the percentage of the total cryptocurrency market cap held in BTC, was 52%. Bitcoin accounted for as much as 54.5% of the total market capitalization earlier this week.

Dollar Factor?

The recent meltdown in cryptocurrencies originated 11 days ago when the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) announced it would delay a ruling on a highly anticipated bitcoin exchange-traded fund (ETF). However, analysts have struggled to explain the extent of the selloff – namely, the $35 billion plunge between Aug. 10-13.

According to eToro analyst and Hacked contributor Mati Greenspan, a surging U.S. dollar may have contributed to the decline. As CCN reports, the cryptocurrency market’s movements this week have been highly correlated with fluctuations in emerging-market currencies. Emerging-market exchange rates have been rocked by contagion fears emanating from Turkey’s political crisis, which have boosted demand for the U.S. dollar. As Hacked reported Friday, the U.S. dollar index recent hit more than one-year highs.

“As the United States moves to tighten its economy and avoid strong inflation, they’re taking action that is strengthening the Dollar. Because the US Dollar is the global reserve currency, many smaller economies rely heavily on a stable exchange rate with the greenback,” Greenspan wrote. “So too, as the Dollar is being seen as a stable store of value at the moment, there really isn’t much incentive for people to store their money in digital assets.”

Bitcoin is generally viewed as a non-correlated asset, which means it enjoys unique price independence when comparted with traditional markets. Correlation, when it does occur, is often driven by the erroneous belief that bitcoin is associated with the broader market. This was observed earlier this year when bitcoin seemingly fell in lockstep with the U.S. stock market.

Disclaimer: The author owns bitcoin, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies. He holds investment positions in the coins, but does not engage in short-term or day-trading.

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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4.6 stars on average, based on 551 rated postsSam Bourgi is Chief Editor to Hacked.com, where he specializes in cryptocurrency, economics and the broader financial markets. Sam has nearly eight years of progressive experience as an analyst, writer and financial market commentator where he has contributed to the world's foremost newscasts.




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Bitcoin

‘Bitcoin Is Better than Gold’, Says Venture Capitalist

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The bitcoin price is trading above $6,500 again and technical indicators like RSI appear more stable, all of which bodes well for market sentiment heading into the weekend.  The improving outlook for the BTC price has silenced the naysayers for now and reinvigorated the case for bitcoin and its applications as both a store of value and payment method.

Lou Kerner of CryptoOracle, a crypto advisory and VC fund startup, on CNBC made the case for bitcoin overtaking gold as a store of value, pointing to gold’s “awesome run” as a “global store of value for a couple thousand years.”

“We now have something that we think is functionally much, much better. So we would expect over time — not in a day, not in a week, not in even five years — but we would expect over time for some of the people using gold as a store of value to switch to bitcoin,” Kerner told CNBC.

Precious metals investors have in fact been switching from gold, as evidenced by a decline in the gold price to an 18-month low this week. The price of gold is currently trading below $1,200 an ounce. Take a look at the declining performance in this popular gold ETF. And while billions of dollars have poured into crypto over the past week, bolstering the total value of the market to $214 billion, there hasn’t been much evidence of investors redirecting assets from gold to bitcoin in 2018 until now.

Source: Trading View

Kerner went on to compare the emergence of the new technology that is Bitcoin to the junk bonds of Michael Milken’s era, pointing to when junk bonds were similarly volatile and viewed as a scam decades ago but today are offered alongside the most traditional of investment products.

“We think bitcoin is going in that same trajectory. Any new assets in its early days are extremely volatile. Nobody knows how to price it. And that’s exactly what we’re seeing with bitcoin,” he said.

Kerner cut his teeth on Wall Street as an equity analyst at Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch, according to his LinkedIn profile. Now his career as a venture capitalist dedicated to crypto, which he says is the “biggest thing to happen in the history of mankind.”

Coinbase Payments

Meanwhile, leading U.S. cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase wants to bolster the security of bitcoin payments for its customers, as evidenced by a new payment-fueled patent that was published in recent days. The invention is comprised of features like a “key ceremony” involving a custodian, master key, bundle and encryption “during a checkout”.

Source: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

Featured image courtesy of Shutterstock

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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4.6 stars on average, based on 39 rated postsGerelyn has been covering ICOs and the cryptocurrency market since mid-2017. She's also reported on fintech more broadly in addition to asset management, having previously specialized in institutional investing. She owns some BTC and ETH.




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Crypto Update: Ripple Leads Oversold Bounce

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The major cryptocurrencies are holding on to their recent short-term gains, as the oversold bounce that followed the early-week liquidation continues. One of the most oversold top coins, Ripple is leading the way higher as it broke out above the $0.30 resistance and rallied to $0.32 in early trading. The total value of the market reached $215 billion, but as Bitcoin and Ethereum are still capped by the $6500 and $300 levels respectively a broad short-term trend change is not confirmed in the segment.

Monero is also among the relatively stronger coins today, extending its bounce above the $90 level, and getting close to the key $100 zone in the process. Litecoin, which has been also showing early signs of strength, failed to build on the rally, and as the leadership is still weak, correlations are high, and the downtrends are intact with regards to most of the coins, traders should remain defensive until further signs of strength in the segment emerge.

XRP/USDT, 4-Hour Chart Analysis

Ripple is trading in the strong $0.30-$0.32 zone, after the overnight rally, being the only major that triggered a short-term buy signal. Despite the signal, the long-term bearish setup is still clearly in place, and the coin continues to face strong resistance at $0.32, with a weaker level also ahead near $0.35, and traders should only treat the current move as a counter-trend rally. Support below $0.30 is found near $0.28, with a stronger long-term level at $0.26, and the coin already cleared the oversold short-term momentum readings.

ETH/USD, 4-Hour Chart Analysis

We are still looking at Ethereum as the most important gauge of the state of the market, as ETH has been in the epicenter of the recent steep selloff, and now it is trying to gain ground above the key $300 level.

Despite the relative stability of the coin, it failed to follow Ripple higher, and also failed to trigger a short-term buy signal, as the declining trend clearly remained intact, even as the steepest trendline has been broken. The coin faces strong resistance just above the current price level and near $335, while support is found between $275 and $280 and near $260.

Bitcoin Still Stuck Below Resistance

BTC/USD, 4-Hour Chart Analysis

BTC has been trading in a narrow range below the $6500 level as altcoins attempted to rally, but the relatively strong coin still failed to show bullish meaningful momentum. The coin remains on a neutral short-term trend signal, and with the key long-term $5850 level not being in danger, the long-term outlook is also neutral.

A move above $6500 could still trigger a short-term buy signal, but the rest of the segment will likely need further consolidation for a trend change, and further strong resistance is ahead at $6750 and $7000, while support is found at $6275 and $6000.

EOS/USDT, 4-Hour Chart Analysis

While a few coins are showing promising short-term signs, most of the majors remain deeply wounded from a technical perspective, with the likes of NEO, IOTA, DASH, and EOS all managing only a weak bounce, despite the clearly oversold momentum readings. With that in mind, the odds of a re-test of the lows are still high, and volatility might increase again in the coming days.

Featured image from Shutterstock

Disclaimer:  The analyst owns cryptocurrencies. He holds investment positions in the coins, but doesn’t engage in short-term or day-trading, nor does he hold short positions on any of the coins.

Important: Never invest (trade with) money you can't afford to comfortably lose. Always do your own research and due diligence before placing a trade. Read our Terms & Conditions here. Trade recommendations and analysis are written by our analysts which might have different opinions. Read my 6 Golden Steps to Financial Freedom here. Best regards, Jonas Borchgrevink.

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4.6 stars on average, based on 321 rated postsTrader and financial analyst, with 10 years of experience in the field. An expert in technical analysis and risk management, but also an avid practitioner of value investment and passive strategies, with a passion towards anything that is connected to the market.




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