University of Washington researchers used a direct brain-to-brain connection to enable pairs of participants to play a question-and-answer game by transmitting signals from one brain to the other over the Internet. The experiment is thought to be the first to show that two brains can be directly linked to allow one person to guess what’s on another person’s mind.
The research is published in PLOS ONE with the title “Playing 20 Questions with the Mind: Collaborative Problem Solving by Humans Using a Brain-to-Brain Interface.” The research paper is freely available online.
This is the most complex brain-to-brain experiment, I think, that’s been done to date in humans. It uses conscious experiences through signals that are experienced visually, and it requires two people to collaborate.
Direct Brain to Brain Transmission of Information and Mental States
In the right picture, postdoctoral student Caitlin Hudac wears a cap that uses transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMG) to deliver brain signals from the other participant. In the top picture, graduate student Jose Ceballos wears an electroencephalography (EEG) cap that records brain activity and sends a response to a second participant over the Internet.
“We present, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that a non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI) can be used to allow one human to guess what is on the mind of another human through an interactive question-and-answering paradigm similar to the ’20 Questions’ game,” note the researchers. “Our interface uses electroencephalography (EEG) to detect specific patterns of brain activity from one participant (the “respondent”), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to deliver functionally-relevant information to the brain of a second participant (the ‘inquirer’).”
Participants in the experiment successfully identify a “mystery item” using a true/false question-answering protocol similar to the “20 Questions” game. The researchers emphasize that their experiment demonstrated the possibility of real-time brain-to-brain communications in a cooperative task, in which the inquirer and respondent must exchange information bi-directionally and in real-time to collaboratively solve the task.
“They have to interpret something they’re seeing with their brains,” said co-author Chantel Prat, a faculty member at the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences and an associate professor of psychology. “It’s not something they’ve ever seen before.” Stocco added:
What we are doing [is] taking signals from the brain and with minimal translation, putting them back in another person’s brain.
With $1 million funding from a W.M. Keck Foundation grant, the researchers will explore the possibilities of “brain tutoring,” knowledge transfer from teacher to pupil, and the direct transmission of brain states.
“Our current efforts are aimed at increasing the complexity of information transmitted through human BBIs [Brain to Brain Interfaces], such as the transmission of affective states and other types of information that would be otherwise difficult to verbalize,” note the researchers. “Under these circumstances, larger amounts of information could potentially be transferred, and a BBI would confer a distinct advantage over canonical, symbolic means of communication. We see this as an exciting venue for future research.”
Facebook creator Mark Zuckerberg is persuaded that we will become telepathic species. In a recent public questions and answers online session on Facebook, Zuckerberg said that the technology of social networks like Facebook will, someday, become so advanced that people will be able to exchange thoughts directly, brain to brain, just like we exchange pictures of cats today. This development seems an important step toward realizing Zuckerberg’s vision.
Images from University of Washington.
Elon Musk Hints at Advances in ‘Neural Lace’ Brain Hacking Tech
Visionary and sometimes controversial entrepreneur Elon Musk hinted at advances in next-generation brain hacking. Recent research results promise future “neural lace” technology that could enhance our brains and connect them to the cloud.
The Possibilities and the Future of Brain Hacking
For all of man’s scientific and technological advances, the human brain largely remains a mystery. A new Vimeo video, “Master/Mind,” examines the state of research on the human mind and the questions that scientists, ethicists, futurists and others are asking in light of what we’re learning about the mind. The video, a Vimeo Staff Pick, consists of a series of comments from scientists, technologist, futurists and ethicists.
Automation, robotics and artificial intelligence are developing so rapidly that many people are wondering if some day, man will no longer harness science but rather be controlled by it. As this question weighs heavily on peoples’ mind, there has been a focus on understanding the human brain.
The central issue the video explores is: New technologies are beginning to unlock the brain’s true potential, but at what cost to our humanity?
“We can identify galaxies light years away, but we still haven’t unlocked the mystery of the three pounds of matter that sits between our ears,” President Obama states at the outset of the video’s journey.
The video shows a recent news report that scientists are seeing neurons change in real-time as events are “recorded” in the brain.
An Organ Of Surreal Complexity
“This is an organ of surreal complexity, and we are just beginning to understand how to even study it,” says Thomas R. Insel, M.D., director of the National Institute of Mental Health.
Sebastian Seung, Ph.D., Princeton Neuroscience Institute professor of computer science, says scientists have speculated that human memories, “the information that makes you, you,” are stored in the connections between the brain’s neurons.
The video examines various approaches to the study of the brain, from the universities to self-taught technology geeks.
The brain consists of 86 billion neurons and the neurons are connected via synapses and other matter. It’s a vast network of connections.
Scientists think synapses record what happens when someone learns something. The video shows what appear to be synapse images.
EEG Detects Brain’s Electrical Activity
Joel Murphy, co-founder of a technology consultancy called OpenBCI, sought to create a low-cost, open source electroencephalography (EEG) system that detects electrical activity in the brain. His partner, Conor Russomanno, found a “how to hack EEG’s” tutorial and was able to do it in one day. “I think everybody is interested in the brain these days,” Russomanno says. Technologies are emerging allowing us to tap in and “figure out what’s going on in there.”
The video examines the laboratory research using electrodes that attach to the human body and allow scientists to monitor fluctuations in electrical activity. Scientists are trying to understand the meaning of these frequencies and relate them to things that people perceive or experience in their everyday lives.
“I think brain computer interfaces are going to be instrumental in human evolution,” Russomanno says.
“Conceivably you could image your brain every two weeks and you would never lose more than two weeks of your experience,” says Russell Hanson, Ph.D., founder of a firm called Brain Backups.
Science Versus Ethics
The video also explores the tension between ethics and science.
Arthur Caplan, Ph.D., director of New York University (NYU) division of medical ethics, says myths throughout history are cautionary about going too far with human knowledge. But in modern times, people have been wondering about controlling new power, be it medical or physics. If we talk about modifying the brain, people worry about losing their identities, Caplan says.
In recent years, science has considered how technology can enhance human capability, such as wearable technology.
Futurist and inventor Raymond Kurzweil says thinking will be a hybrid, biological and non-biological.
Nick Bostrom, Ph.D., author and philosopher, says machine intelligence is the last invention that will need to be made. Machines will eventually be better at inventing than humans. “Once there is super intelligence, the fate of humanity may depend on what this super-intelligence does,” he says.
“Once they go in there (the brain) and tinker, what they are eventually going to do is very crude control and mostly destruction,” says Peter Breggin, M.D., a psychiatrist. “It’s the seat of our humanity, and that’s what they’re tampering with.”
What Makes Us Human?
A narrator notes near the end of the video that man does not have the ability to do what he is doing if it wasn’t intended in the first place. From the beginning of time, man has worked to control the environment.
“We develop technology to improve the human experience,” Russomanno says. “Whatever we turn into or whatever we become, we need to make sure that we’re still human.”
“It seems to me the brain alterations are closer to changing who we are, so we have to be careful about what we want to be,” Caplan of NYU says.
“What is it about the human brain that could potentially never be replicated artificially?” asks Lydia Fazzio, M.D., founder of biohackers NYC. “To be human is to incorporate a bit of the erratic, of the unpredictable, and that is what I hope continues.”
Image from Shutterstock.
Researchers Grow Miniature Human Brain in a Vat
Researchers at Ohio State University have grown a nearly complete human brain in a dish that equals the brain maturity of a 5-week-old fetus. The lab-grown brain, about the size of a pencil eraser, has an identifiable structure and contains 99 percent of the genes present in the human fetal brain.
The research was presented at the 2015 Military Health System Research Symposium in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. According to the researchers, the miniature brain “organoid” is the most complete human brain model yet developed.
The Most Exciting Thing to Happen in Neurology to Date
“It not only looks like the developing brain, its diverse cell types express nearly all genes like a brain,” said Ohio State University professor Rene Anand. “We’ve struggled for a long time trying to solve complex brain disease problems that cause tremendous pain and suffering. The power of this brain model bodes very well for human health because it gives us better and more relevant options to test and develop therapeutics other than rodents.”
Though the model brain doesn’t have a vascular system, it has a spinal cord, all major regions of the brain, multiple cell types, signaling circuitry and even a retina. According to Anand, this development has the potential to dramatically accelerate the pace of neuroscience research.
The miniature vat-grown brain, engineered from adult human skin cells converted into pluripotent cells, is intended for clinical and research applications. In fact, the brain organoid could permit rapid and accurate testing of experimental drugs for brain conditions before the clinical trial stage, as well as studies of genetic and environmental causes of neural disorders.
Anand used proprietary techniques to convert pluripotent cells into neural cells. “Once a cell is in that pluripotent state, it can become any organ – if you know what to do to support it to become that organ,” said Anand. “The brain has been the holy grail because of its enormous complexity compared to any other organ.”
Anand and collaborator Susan McKay, a research associate in biological chemistry and pharmacology, co-founded a Columbus-based start-up company, NeurXstem, to commercialize their technology platform, and hope to be participate in DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) projects.
The Guardian notes that other researchers criticize Anand and McKay for not releasing their proprietary research specifications and data. “When someone makes such an extraordinary claim as this, you have to be cautious until they are willing to reveal their data,” said a neuroscientist.
“The creation of the in vitro brain (IVB) is perhaps the most exciting thing to happen in neurology to date,” notes the Practical Ethics blog of Oxford University.
There is enormous therapeutic potential in this new technology.
Anand emphasized that the organoid is not a functioning brain, and it should not be thought of as a thinking and feeling brain in a vat. “We don’t have any sensory stimuli entering the brain,” said Anand to The Guardian. “This brain is not thinking in any way.”
The Practical Ethics blog confirms that the miniature brain can’t be conscious, but notes that future developments could produce a thinking and feeling brain in a vat, which would raise ethical concerns.
Images from Ohio State University and Shutterstock.
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